Learning the sign structures of quantum systems: is it hard or trivial?
A well-established approach to solving interacting quantum systems is variational Monte Carlo. There is a lot of renewed interest in it since the introduction of neural networks as a highly expressive and unbiased variational ansatz. Similar to more traditional ansätze, neural networks struggle with solving frustrated quantum systems. A conjecture has been made that the cause of these difficulties lies in the sign structures of the ground state wavefunctions. Here, we will discuss these sign structures in more detail and try to analyze how complex they really are by establishing a connection to classical Ising models.