Neutrinos in Cosmology after Planck: What are their masses, properties, and relationship with the Hubble tension?

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Neutrinos are a key (although implicit) ingredient of the standard cosmological model, LambdaCDM. Firstly, neutrinos directly participate in neutron freeze out during BBN, and secondly, they represent 40% of the energy density of the Universe after electron positron annihilation up to almost matter radiation equality. The latter fact makes neutrinos a necessary element to understand CMB observations. 

In this talk, I will review the cosmological implications of neutrinos. I will explain how current cosmological observations can be used to constrain their masses, their abundances, and their properties -- such as their interaction rate with other species. In particular, I will highlight that the typically very stringent constraint on their masses can be substantially relaxed if neutrinos decay on cosmological timescales. I will illustrate the implications of neutrino decays in cosmology with a few well-motivated neutrino mass models in which neutrinos can decay. I will then show that Planck CMB observations are a powerful tool to constraint neutrino interactions with neutrinophilic bosons. In particular, I will demonstrate that Planck legacy constraints neutrinophilic bosons with couplings as small as 10^{-13} with neutrinos for boson masses in the 0.1 eV < m < 300 eV range. I will finish by reviewing the role neutrinos can play with regards to the outstanding Hubble tension. I will show that pseudogoldstone bosons (majorons) interacting with neutrinos right before recombination represent a well motivated possibility to ameliorate (and potentially solve) the Hubble tension.