Fifth forces and new particles from dark energy



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PIRSA Number: 
13010023

Abstract

Dark energy coupled to Standard Model fermions and gauge
bosons gives rise to fifth forces and new particles, which are readily
accessible to experiments from laboratory to cosmological scales.  I will discuss chameleon and symmetron
models, whose fifth forces are screened locally through large effective masses
and symmetry-restoring phase transitions, respectively.  Fifth force experiments such as the Eot-Wash
torsion balance will test chameleons with small quantum corrections and
gravitation-strength fifth forces, as well as symmetrons with coupling energies
just beyond the Standard Model scale.  A
dark energy coupling to electromagnetism would imply that photons passing
through a magnetic field will oscillate into particles of dark energy, a
phenomenon studied by afterglow experiments such as CHASE.  After constraining dark energy using
laboratory experiments, I proceed to astrophysical probes.  Particles of a photon-coupled dark energy
could be produced in the Sun and detected in magnetic helioscopes such as CAST,
while fifth forces may alter the dynamics of variable stars and the growth of
large-scale structure.