Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
In this talk we will give an overview of how different probabilistic and quantum probabilistic techniques can be used to find Bell inequalities with large violation. This will include previous result on violation for tripartite systems and more recent results with Palazuelos on probabilities for bipartite systems. Quite surprisingly the latest results are the most elementary, but lead to some rather surprsing independence of entropy and large violation.
It is a fundamental, if elementary, observation that to obliterate the quantum information in n qubits by random unitaries, an amount of randomness of at least 2n bits is required. If the randomisation condition is relaxed to perform only approximately, we obtain two answers, depending on the norm used to compare the ideal and the approximation. Using the ''naive'' norm brings down the cost to n bits, while under the more appropriate complete norm it is still essentially 2n.
Understanding NP-complete problems is a central topic in computer science. This is why adiabatic quantum optimization has attracted so much attention, as it provided a new approach to tackle NP-complete problems using a quantum computer. The efficiency of this approach is limited by small spectral gaps between the ground and excited states of the quantum computer's Hamiltonian.
We introduce a class of probability spaces whose objects are infinite graphs and whose probability distributions are obtained as limits of distributions for finite graphs. The notions of Hausdorff and spectral dimension for such ensembles are defined and some results on their value in koncrete examples, such as random trees, will be described.
Using a formulation of the post-Newtonian expansion in terms of Feynman graphs, we discuss how various tests of General Relativity (GR) can be translated into measurement of the three- and four-graviton vertices. The timing of the Hulse-Taylor binary pulsar provides a bound on the deviation of the three-graviton vertex from the GR prediction at the 0.1% level.
While gravitational waves offer a new, and in many ways clean, view of compact objects, most of what we presently know about these has been obtained by careful study of their messy interactions with surrounding material. I will summarize what we know about a variety of potential gravitational wave sources, how this astrophysical hair has helped to illuminate some of the same questions gravitational wave observations promise to address, and how future observations may begin to relate the gravitational and electromagnetic properties of compact objects.
In addition to the dominant oscillatory modes gravitational waves contain non-oscillatory components which arise as drifts or offsets in the signals. Nonlinear gravitational memory arises from a change in mass multipole moments of a boundsystem due to contributions from the emitted gravitationalwaves. In practice it appears as a slowly monotonically growingsignal during the inspiral which sees a rapid rise at thetime of merger.