Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
Should we revisit the concept of space solely based on quantum mechanics?
Do we need a radically new physical principle to address the problem of quantum gravity?
In this talk I will adress these questions. I will review what are the central challenges one faces when trying to understand the theory of quantum gravity from first principles and focus on the main one which is non-locality.
I will present a collection of results and ideas that have been developed in the recent years that provides a radical new perspective on these issues.
We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS3, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT2 correlators at large central charge c: `forbidden singularities' arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We show that these signatures can be derived from the behavior of the Virasoro conformal blocks at large central charge. At finite c, we compute non-perturbative effects that resolve the unitarity-violation from forbidden singularities.
In this talk, I will present a framework in which Weinberg's anthropic explanation of the cosmological constant problem also solves the hierarchy problem. The weak scale is selected by chiral dynamics that controls the stabilization of an extra dimension. When the Higgs vacuum expectation value is close to a fermion mass scale, the radius of an extra dimension becomes large, and develops an enhanced number of vacua available to scan the cosmological constant down to its observed value.
Despite tremendous recent progress, gaps remain in our knowledge of our cosmic history. For example, we have yet to make observations of Cosmic Dawn or the subsequent Epoch of Reionization. Together, these represent the important period when the first stars and galaxies were formed, dramatically altering their surroundings in the process. Radio telescopes targeting the 21cm line will open up these crucial epochs to direct observations in the next few years, filling in a missing chapter in our cosmic story.
Understanding the causal influences that hold among the parts of a system is critical both to explaining that system's natural behaviour and to controlling it through targeted interventions. In a quantum world, understanding causal relations is equally important, but the set of possibilities is far richer. The two basic ways in which a pair of time-ordered quantum systems may be causally related are by a cause-effect mechanism or by a common cause acting on both. Here, we show that it is possible to have a coherent mixture of these two possibilities.
Sets or pairs of incompatible observables, such as momentum and position, play a pivotal role in a wide range of distinctly quantum effects and applications, including quantum cryptography, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, quantum state tomography, and Bell’s inequalities. In particular, in quantum physics, we are prohibited from precisely measuring the values of incompatible observables, a fact that is at the heart of the nature of the quantum state.
Tradeoffs in measurement and information are among the central themes of quantum mechanics. I will try to summarize in this talk a few of our experiments related to modern views of these topics. In particular, I will try to give an example or two of the power of "weak measurements," both for fundamental physics and for possible precision metrology. One example will involve revisiting the question of Heisenberg's famous principle, and an interpretation which is widespread but has now been experimentally shown to be incorrect.
One of the most successful theories in physics until now is quantum mechanics. However, the physical origins of its mathematical structure are still under debate, and a "generalized" quantum theory to unify quantum mechanics and gravity is still missing. Recently, in an effort to better understand the mathematical structure of quantum mechanics, theories containing the essence of quantum mechanics, while also having a broader description of physical phenomena, have been proposed. These so-called "post-quantum theories" have only been recently tested at the lab.