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How gravity modifies thermodynamics: Maximal temperature and Poincare recurrence theorem

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Thermodynamics is a closed field of research. The laws of thermodynamics, established in the nineteenth century, are still standing unchallenged.  However, they do not include gravity. Inclusion of gravity into the thermodynamical system can significantly modify the expected behavior of the system. We will demonstrate that gravity dynamically induces a maximal temperature that can be reached in a gas of particles.  We will also show how gravity can significantly change the Poincare recurrence theorem, and sometimes even prevent the recurrence from happening.