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Enigmas in Galaxy Formation

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Understanding how galaxies form is a major current goal in physical cosmology: although a basic picture is well-accepted, there are outstanding mysteries to be solved. First, what is the origin of the heavy elements seen outside of galaxies? Given that these elements are created only inside galaxies, there must be a process whereby galaxies can expel gas rather than accrete it. Second, galaxy properties are somewhat different from theory predicts, yet extremely regular -- to the extent that it has been seriously argued that modified gravity, rather than dark matter, explains them. I will discuss these mysteries and the possibility that the same culprit -- galactic winds -- may play a key role in solving both.