This series consists of talks in areas where gravity is the main driver behind interesting or peculiar phenomena, from astrophysics to gravity in higher dimensions.
Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo are currently in the middle of their third observing run, and releasing open public event alerts for the first time. The LIGO-Virgo collaboration has issued 29 un-retracted candidate event alerts as of September 20th, 2019, potentially adding dozens more known compact binary object mergers to the eleven confident LIGO-Virgo detections from the first two Advanced-era observing runs. I’ll review novel LIGO-Virgo results to date, and discuss the challenges of extracting interesting new physics from noisy detector data.
The event horizon and the Cauchy horizon of an extremal black hole admit conserved charges associated with scalar perturbations. We will see that these charges are externally measurable from null infinity. This suggests that these charges have the potential to serve as an observational signature for extremal black holes. The proof of this result is based on obtaining precise late-time asymptotics for the radiation field of outgoing perturbations.
I shall analyze three specific general-relativistic problems in which gravitomagnetism plays important role: the dragging of magnetic fields around rotating black holes, dragging inside a collapsing slowly rotating spherical shell of dust, compared with the dragging by rotating gravitational waves (CQG 34, 205006 (2017), Phys. Rev. D 85 124003, (2012) etc). I shall also briefly show how "instantaneous Machian gauges“ can be useful in the cosmological perturbation theory (Phys. Rev. D 76, 063501 (2007)).
Following the advent of LIGO measurements, it has been recently observed that QFT amplitudes can be used to derive observables appearing in the scattering of two black holes, to very high orders in perturbation theory. Such framework easily fits into the Post-Newtonian and Post-Minkowskian expansions appearing in the treatment of the binary inspiral. In this talk we will review recent progress in this direction for the case of spinning black holes, focusing on radiation and the multipole expansion. From the QFT point of view these are in close relation to long-studied Soft Theorems.
Ground-based gravitational wave observatories have begun to uncover a large number of compact binary coalescences in the universe through gravitational wave signals. I will discuss novel and effective techniques we have developed recently to analyze the publicly available LIGO/Virgo bulk strain data from scratch. Built on simple ideas and easy to implement, those address the questions of template bank construction, signal processing, trigger ranking, and fast parameter estimation.
The conservation law for the total (orbital plus spin) angular momentum of a Dirac particle in the presence of gravity requires that spacetime is not only curved, but also has a nonzero torsion. The coupling between the spin and torsion in the Einstein–Cartan theory of gravity generates gravitational repulsion at extremely high densities, which prevents a singularity in a black hole and may create there a new, closed, baby universe undergoing one or more nonsingular bounces.
At the event horizon of a black hole, gravity reaches its most extreme behaviour. Studying the dynamics of event horizons is key to understand gravity in is ultra-strong field regime and investigate the most fundamental properties of black holes. Black hole collisions provide a unique scenario to observe event horizons in a highly distorted and violently changing regime, which leads to a vast collection of phenomena that has not yet been detected by Advanced LIGO and Virgo.
By applying a parabolic-hyperbolic formulation of the constraints and superposing Kerr-Schild black holes, a simple method is introduced to initialize time evolution of binary systems. As the input parameters are essentially the same as those used in the post-Newtonian (PN) setup the proposed method interrelates various physical expressions applied in PN and in fully relativistic formulations. The global ADM charges are also determined by the input parameters, and no use of boundary conditions in the strong field regime is made.
The source of about half of the heaviest elements in the Universe has been a mystery for a long time. Although the general picture of element formation is well understood, many questions about the nuclear physics processes and particularly the astrophysical details remain to be answered. Here I focus on recent advances in our understanding of the origin of the heaviest and rarest elements in the Universe.
There is observational evidence that the X-ray continuum source that creates the broad fluorescent emission lines in some Seyfert Galaxies may be compact and located at a few gravitational radii above the black hole. We consider two scenarios for the X-ray emission. The first possibility is that the X-rays may be produced by particles accelerated in an electrostatic gap at the base of a putative jet.