A unification of symmetric Z2 spin liquids on kagome lattice

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While there is mounting numerical evidence for a gapped Z2 spin liquid in the kagome Heisenberg model, a complete characterization of this topological phase remains to be accomplished. A defining property, the projective symmetry group (PSG) which fixes how the emergent excitations of the spin liquid phase transform under symmetry, remains to be determined. Following a Chern-Simons field theory, we show how PSG determines measurable properties of a Z2 spin liquid, such as the existence of symmetry protected gapless edge states. This fact enables us to unify two distinct types of projected wavefunctions for Z2 spin liquids: the Schwinger-boson states and the fermionic spinon states. We also provide concrete predictions for identifying the spin liquid ground state on the kagome lattice.