The hot, gaseous atmospheres of galaxies and clusters of galaxies are
repositories for the energy output from accreting, supermassive black holes located in the nuclei of galaxies.
X-ray observations show that star formation fueled by gas condensing out of hot atmospheres is strongly suppressed by feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). This mechanism
may solve several outstanding problems in astrophysics, including the
numbers of luminous galaxies and their colors, and the excess number of
hot baryons in the Universe. The most energetic AGN outbursts may be powered by rapidly-spinning, ultra-massive black holes.