String Theory, Entropic Gravity and the Dark Universe

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Recent developments reveal a deep connection between entanglement entropy and the emergence of space time and gravity. In anti-de Sitter space gravity appears to be derived from the first law of thermodynamics for entanglement entropy, which in the large radius limit obeys an area law. Based on insights from string theory, we propose a generalisation of these results to flat space and de Sitter space. In the latter case, the vacuum entanglement entropy has an additional contribution that scales like the volume of the bulk space time. We argue that this leads to a modification of Einstein gravity and explains the observed phenomena associated to dark energy and dark matter.