Spectrum of conformal gauge theories on a torus

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Many model quantum spin systems have been proposed to realize critical points or phases described by 2+1 dimensional conformal gauge theories. On a torus of size L and modular parameter τ, the energy levels of such gauge theories equal (1/L) times universal functions of τ. We compute the universal spectrum of QED3, a U(1) gauge theory with Nf two-component massless Dirac fermions, in the large-Nf limit. We also allow for a Chern-Simons term at level k, and show how the topological k-fold ground state degeneracy in the absence of fermions transforms into the universal spectrum in the presence of fermions; these computations are performed at fixed Nf/k in the large-Nf limit.