A separation of out-of-time-ordered correlator and entanglement



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PIRSA Number: 
19080079

Abstract

The out-of-time-ordered correlator (OTOC) and entanglement are two physically motivated and widely used probes of the ``scrambling'' of quantum information, which has drawn great interest recently in quantum gravity and many-body physics. By proving upper and lower bounds for OTOC saturation on graphs with bounded degree and a lower bound for entanglement on general graphs, we show that the time scales of scrambling as given by the growth of OTOC and entanglement entropy can be asymptotically separated in a random quantum circuit model defined on graphs with a tight bottleneck. Our result counters the intuition that a random quantum circuit mixes in time proportional to the diameter of the underlying graph of interactions.  It also serves as a more rigorous justification for an argument of [Shor, 1807.04363], that black holes may be very slow scramblers in terms of entanglement generation. Such observations may be of fundamental importance in the understanding of the black hole information problem. The bound we obtained for OTOC is interesting in its own right in that it generalized previous studies of OTOC on lattices to the geometries on graphs and proved it rigorously.   Based on [Harrow-Kong-Liu-Mehraban-Shor, 1906.02219]