The Projection Operator Method for Quantum Constraints

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Classical constraints come in various forms: first and second class, irreducible and reducible, regular and irregular, all of which will be illustrated. They can lead to severe complications when classical constraints are quantized. An additional complication involves whether one should quantize first and reduce second or vice versa, which may conflict with the axiom that canonical quantization requires Cartesian coordinates. Most constraint quantization procedures (e.g., Dirac, BRST, Faddeev) run into difficulties with some of these issues and may lead to erroneous results. The Projection Operator Method involves no gauge fixing, no auxiliary variables of any kind, and can treat simultaneously any and all kinds of constraints. It also admits a phase space path integral formulation with similar features.