Local Conformal Symmetry and its Violation at Quantum Level

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We present a short review of the local conformal symmetry and its anomalous violation in curved $4d$ space-time. Furthermore we discuss the ambiguities of conformal anomaly and the anomaly-induced effective actions. Despite the conformal symmetry is always broken at quantum level, it is useful for constructing the best known approximations for investigating quantum corrections to the classical action of gravity. These quantum corrections represent an appropriate basis for a number of applications in cosmology and black hole physics.