A non-perturbative definition of anomaly-free chiral fermions and bosons in 1+1D spacetime as finite quantum systems on 1D lattice is proposed. In particular, any 1+1D anomaly-free chiral matter theory can be defined as finite quantum systems on 1D lattice with on-site symmetry, if we include strong interactions between matter fields. Our approach provides another way, apart from Ginsparg-Wilson fermions approach, to avoid the fermion-doubling challenge. In general, using the defining connection between gauge anomalies and the symmetry-protected topological orders, we propose that any truly anomaly-free chiral gauge theory can be non-perturbatively defined by putting it on a lattice in the same dimension. As an additional remark, we conjecture/prove the equivalence relation between 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions and the boundary fully gapping rules.