Adding entanglement to quantum error-correcting codes

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Shared entanglement between sender and receiver can enable more errors to be corrected than with a standard quantum error-correcting code. This extra error correction can be used either to boost the rate of the code--commonly seen in quantum codes constructed from classical linear codes--or to increase the error-correcting power of the code (as represented by, for example, the code distance). We will see how adding extra entanglement to a given quantum code can increase its distance, and discuss the optimization problem in maximizing the effectiveness of a given amount of added entanglement. We will also briefly examine some applications of entanglement-assistance to particular types of codes, such as LDPC codes and convolutional codes.