Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
The evidence that the universe emerged 14 billion years ago from an event called \'the big bang\' is overwhelming. Yet the cause of this event remains deeply mysterious. In the conventional picture, the \'initial singularity\' is unexplained. It is simply assumed that the universe somehow sprang into existence full of \'inflationary\' energy, blowing up the universe into the large, smooth state we observe today. While this picture is in excellent agreement with current observations, it is both contrived and incomplete, leading us to suspect that it is not the final word.
Coin flipping by telephone (Blum \'81) is one of the most basic cryptographic tasks of two-party secure computation. In a quantum setting, it is possible to realize (weak) coin flipping with information theoretic security. Quantum coin flipping has been a longstanding open problem, and its solution uses an innovative formalism developed by Alexei Kitaev for mapping quantum games into convex optimization problems.
At a very basic level, physics is about what we can say about propositions like \'A has a value in S\' (or \'A is in S\' for short), where A is some physical quantity like energy, position, momentum etc. of a physical system, and S is some subset of the real line. In classical physics, given a state of the system, every proposition of the form \'A is in S\' is either true or false, and thus classical physics is realist in the sense that there is a \'way things are\'. In contrast to that, quantum theory only delivers a probability of \'A is in S\' being true.
Two spinning black holes emit gravitational waves as they orbit, and eventually merge to form a single black hole. How do the properties of the final black hole depend on those of the initial black holes? This is a classic problem in general relativity, with implications for astrophysics, cosmology, and gravitational wave detection. I will describe the rapid numerical and theoretical progress over the past two years, and discuss some open questions and future directions.
The most remarkable recent discovery in fundamental physics is that the Universe is undergoing accelerated expansion. A proper understanding of its physical origin forces us to make a hard choice between dynamical and environmental scenarios. The former approach predicts the existence of a new long distance physics in the gravitational sector, while the second relies on the vast landscape of vacua with different values of the cosmological constant. I will discuss achievements and shortcomings of both approaches, and illustrate them in the concrete examples.