Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
We will consider stability in the string theory landscape. A survey over several classes of flux vacua with different characteristics indicates that the vast majority of flux vacua with small cosmological constant are unstable to rapid decay to a big crunch. Only vacua with large compactification radius or (approximately) supersymmetric configurations turn out to be long lived. We will speculate that regions of the landscape with approximate R-symmetry, while rare, might be cosmological attractors.
Do ideas about information and reality inspire fruitful new approaches to the hardest problems of modern physics? What can we learn about the paradoxes of quantum mechanics, the beginning of the universe and our understanding of black holes by thinking about the very essence of information? The answers to these questions are surprising and enlightening, but also controversial. The topic of information within physics has involved some of the 20th century\'s greatest scientists in long-running intellectual battles that continue to the present day.
Warped backgrounds in string theory are useful tools for building phenomenological models of early universe cosmology and particle physics. In particular, warped backgrounds play an important role in constructing viable models of brane inflation and can help explain the presence of hierarchies in particle physics. One interesting feature of warped models is that subtle differences in the warped geometry can lead to significant differences in observational signatures in the CMB and at the LHC that can be used to distingiush different models.
The spacetime or histories approach is a whole attitude to quantum mechanics in which histories are fundamental rather than states. In this talk we will review a suggested dynamics and a suggested interpretation in this framework, phrasing the dynamics of stochastic collapse models in the histories language then proceeding to explore a new realist interpretation suggested by Rafael Sorkin and examining its perspective on the Kochen-Specker result.
We describe the measurement statistics of the balanced homodyne detection scheme in terms of the moment operators of the associated positive operator measures. In particular, we give a mathematically rigorous proof for the fact that the high amplitude limit in the local oscillator leads to a measurement of a rotated quadrature operator of the signal _eld. Using these results, we also show that each covariant phase space observable can be measured with the eight-port homodyne detector.
With the discovery of many new satellite galaxies, in recent years our understanding of the Milky Way environment has undergone a dramatic transformation. I will discuss what these discoveries are telling us about galaxy formation and the nature of dark matter itself. Issues I will focus on include: identifying the least luminous dark matter halo in the Universe, distinguishing between warm and cold dark matter, and indirect dark matter detection.