Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
We present recent and ongoing work that uses precision frequency generation and phase measurement to test the constancy of the speed of light Local Position Invariance (LPI) and the Lorentz Invariance (LI) of the photon with respect to the Standard Model of Particle Physics under the frame work of the Standard Model Extension (SME). The first experiment consists of a pair of orthogonally orientated single crystal sapphire resonators cooled to cryogenic temperatures and configured as stable oscillators operating in Whispering Gallery Mode (Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillator).
Optical frequency standards based on forbidden transitions of trapped and laser-cooled ions have now achieved significantly higher stability and greater accuracy than primary cesium clocks. At PTB we investigate an optical clock based on the electric quadrupole transition S1/2 – D3/2 at 688 THz in the 171Yb+ ion and have shown that the frequencies realized in two independent ion traps agree to within a few parts in 1016. Results from a sequence of precise measurements of the transition frequency are now available that cover a period of seven years.
At present a number of current or proposed experiments are directed towards a search for a `new physics\' by detecting variations of fundamental physical constants or violations of certain basic symmetries. Various problems related to the phenomenology of such experiments will be considered.
I will present a brief introduction to Big Bang Nucleosynthesis theory and observation. I will then discuss BBN as a probe of hadronic mass variation in the very early universe, including comparison with the observed Li7 discrepancy. Finally I want to explore the possibility of overproducing Li6 by three orders of magnitude in order to match reported observations.
I will describe how and why coupling variations and violations of the equivalence principle are generally expected in string theory and focus on two main scenarios/realizations: the Damour-Polyakov and the runaway dilaton.