Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
Usually, quantum theory (QT) is introduced by giving a list of abstract mathematical postulates, including the Hilbert space formalism and the Born rule. Even though the result is mathematically sound and in perfect agreement with experiment, there remains the question why this formalism is a natural choice, and how QT could possibly be modified in a consistent way. My talk is on recent work with Lluis Masanes, where we show that five simple operational axioms actually determine the formalism of QT uniquely. This is based to a large extent on Lucien Hardy's seminal work.
We consider theories that satisfy: information causality, reversibility, local discriminability, all tight effects are measurable. A property of these theories is that binary systems (with two perfectly distinguishable states and no more) have state spaces with the shape of a unit ball (the Bloch ball) of arbitrary dimension. It turns out that for dimension different than three these systems cannot be entangled. Hence, the only theory with entanglement which satisfying the above assumptions is quantum theory.
Quantum Theory can be derived from six operational axioms. We introduce the operational and probabilistic language that is used to formulate the principles. After the basic notions of system, state, effect and transformation are reviewed, the principles are stated, and their immediate consequences and interpretations are analyzed. Finally, some key results that represent milestones of the derivation are discussed, with particular focus on their implications on information processing and their relation with the standard quantum formalism.
I provide a reformulation of finite dimensional quantum theory in the circuit framework in terms of mathematical axioms, and a reconstruction of quantum theory from operational postulates. The mathematical axioms for quantum theory are the following: [Axiom 1] Operations correspond to operators. [Axiom 2] Every complete set of positive operators corresponds to a complete set of operations. The following operational postulates are shown to be equivalent to these mathematical axioms: [P1] Definiteness.
Consider the two great physical theories of the twentieth century: relativity and quantum mechanics. Einstein derived relativity from very simple principles. By contrast, the foundation of quantum mechanics is built on a set of rather strange, disjointed and ad hoc axioms, reflecting at best the history that led to discovering this new world order. The purpose of this talk is to argue that a better foundation for quantum mechanics lies within the teachings of quantum information science.
The equilibration dynamics of a closed quantum system is encoded in the long-time distribution function of generic observables. In this paper we consider the Loschmidt echo generalized to finite temperature, and show that we can obtain an exact expression for its long-time distribution for a closed system described by a quantum XY chain following a sudden quench.
It is often assumed that the first evidence for direct dark matter detection will come from experiments probing spin-independent interactions, because of higher sensitivities due to coherence effects. We explore the possibility of models that would be invisible in such experiments, but detectable via spin-dependent interactions. The existence of much larger (or only) spin-dependent tree-level interactions is not sufficient, due to potential spin-independent subdominant or loop-induced interactions.
TeV-scale models of quantum gravity predict the formation of mini black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. If these black holes can be treated, at least for part of their evolution, as semi-classical objects, they will emit Hawking radiation. In this talk we review the modeling of this evaporation process, particularly for the case when the black hole is rotating. A detailed understanding of the Hawking radiation is necessary for accurate simulations of black hole events at the LHC.