Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
The positron excess measured by PAMELA may be the long waited hint of the presence of dark matter particles in the Milky Way halo. But before we rejoice, we need to examine the other Possible astrophysical explanations. Whatever the sources -- DM or conventional -- a crucial ingredient is the transport of cosmic rays in the magnetic fields of the Galaxy to which I will pay particular attention in this presentation.
The cosmic-ray excess observed by PAMELA in the positron fraction and by FERMI and HESS in the electron + positron flux can be interpreted in terms of DM annihilations or decays into leptonic final states. Final states into tau's or 4mu give the best fit to the excess. However, in the annihilation scenario, they are incompatible with photon and neutrino constraints, unless DM has a quasi-constant density profile.
Recent data from the PAMELA satellite and a number of balloon experiment have reported unexpected excesses in the measured fluxes of cosmic rays. Are these the first direct evidences for Dark Matter? If yes, which DM models and candidates can explain these anomalies and what do they imply for future searches?
Successfully launched on June 11, 2008, Fermi is the reference high-energy gamma-ray space observatory of the current decade.
The balloon-borne Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) experiment has measured the cosmic-ray electron spectrum over the energy range from 20 GeV to 3 TeV. The totally active Bismuth Germanate (BGO) calorimeter provides energy measurements with resolution of ~2%. The finely segmented Silicon matrix provides charge measurements with an excellent resolution of ~0.2 e. Below 100 GeV, the ATIC spectrum agrees with previous data and with a calculated spectrum based on a conventional galactic propagation model.
New results on the antiproton-to-proton and positron-to-all electron ratios over a wide energy range (1 – 100 GeV) have been obtained by the PAMELA mission. These data are mainly interpreted in terms of dark matter annihilation or pulsar contribution. The instrument PAMELA, in orbit since June 15th, 2006 on board the Russian satellite Resurs DK1, is daily delivering to ground 16 Gigabytes of data. The apparatus is designed to study charged particles in the cosmic radiation, with a particular focus on antiparticles for searching antimatter and signals of dark matter annihilation.
I will discuss the contribution to black hole thermodynamics from a variation in the cosmological constant. The description of black hole with a cosmological constant is facilitated by introducing a two-form potential for the static Killing field. The resulting Smarr formula then includes a term proportional to the cosmological constant times an effective volume, which arises as the difference between the Killing potential on the horizon and the boundary at infinity.
We suggest here a mechanism for the seeding of the primordial density fluctuations. We point out that a process like reheating at the end of inflation will inevitably generate perturbations, even on superhorizon scales, by the local diffusion of energy. Provided that the final temperature is of order the GUT scale, the density contrast $\delta_R$ for spheres of radius $R$ will be of order $10^{-5}$ at horizon entry, consistent with the values measured by \texttt{WMAP}.
The massless fields of closed string theory on toroidal backgrounds naturally depend on coordinates dual to momentum and coordinates dual to winding. Their dynamical theory, which contains gravitation, must include diffeomorphism and dual diffeomorphism invariance. We begin a serious attempt to construct this generalized form of field theory.