Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
An entirely new kind of band insulator was discovered recently. These new electronic states - called "topological insulators" - are fundamentally different from standard band insulators. They are distinguished by the fact that their edges (in the 2D case) or surfaces (in the 3D case) support gapless transport which is extremely robust. In the two dimensional case, topological insulators can be thought of as time reversal invariant analogues of integer quantum Hall states.
I consider some of the issues we face in trying to understand dark energy. Huge fluctuations in the unknown dark energy equation of state can be hidden in distance data, so I argue that model-independent tests which signal if the cosmological constant is wrong are valuable. These can be constructed to remove degeneracies with the cosmological parameters. Gravitational effects can play an important role. Even small inhomogeneity clouds our ability to say something definite about dark energy.
In this talk I present recent work on combining game theory, statistics, and control theory. This combination provides new techniques for predicting / controlling any system comprising humans, human groups (e.g., firms, tribes), and / or adaptive automated systems (e.g., reinforcement learning robots). As illustrations, I will focus on three projects: 1) Suppressing flutter in an airplane wing by controlling a set of autonomous micro-flaps at its trailing edge.
A plethora of Higgsless models have been proposed and we are in the peculiar situation where Fermilab & LHC results will be extremely interesting whether or not the Higgs boson is found. I present here a model where one of the sacred assumption of quantum field theory (renormalizability) is dropped. A precise prescription for the removal of the divergences guarantees both unitarity and predictivity. Interestingly the model is consistent if the Power counting criterion is enforced in a weak form (Weak Power Counting).
Two-dimensional non-linear sigma models on some supergroup manifolds are conformal field theories whether the action includes a Wess-Zumino term or not. These models are relevant for the worldsheet description of string theory in Anti-de Sitter backgrounds with Ramond-Ramond fluxes. The current algebra is an useful tool to study these theories. In these lectures I will review the construction of the current algebra. Then I will discuss some applications to the computation of the spectrum and integrability.
Loop quantum gravity and spin foams are two closely related theories of quantum gravity. There is an expectation that the sum over histories or path integral formulation of LQG will take the form of a spin foam, although a rigorous connection between the two is available only in 2+1 gravity. Understanding the relation between them will resolve many open questions of both theories. We probe the connection through an exactly soluble model of loop quantum cosmology. Beginning from the canonical theory we construct a spin foam like expansion of LQC.
In this talk (based on arXiv:1001.0354) we give a quantum statistical interpretation for the Kauffmann bracket polynomial state sum <K> for the Jones polynomial. We use this quantum mechanical interpretation to give a new quantum algorithm for computing the Jones polynomial. This algorithm is useful for its conceptual simplicity, and it applies to all values of the polynomial variable that lie on the unit circle in the complex plane.
Fibonacci anyons are the simplest system of anyons capable of implementing universal topological quantum computation, an area which is of intense theoretical and experimental interest. Recent studies have shown that for nearest-neighbour interactions, the properties of the ground state of a 1-D chain of Fibonacci anyons may be modeled using a spin chain, and are related to specific conformal field theories.
Theoretical insights originated from the study of black holes combined with developments in string theory indicate that space time and gravity are emergent. A central role in these developments is played by the holographic principle. I will present a heuristic argument that indicates that at a microscopic level gravity is an entropic force caused by changes in the available phase space due to the displacement of material bodies.