Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
Recently, emergent phenomena have started to attract more attention. Instead of assuming a symmetric world, one begins with a chaotic one. In this talk, I will describe this picture, discuss the main constraints on emergence, and then present a few phenomenological procedures that can be implemented to study the emergent phenomena.
This talk presents sufficient conditions for equilibration and thermalization of subsystems within closed many body quantum systems. That is, we identify when the local properties of the equilibrium state resemble those of a thermal state. With this aim, the recent progress in this field is reviewed and we introduce a novel perturbation technique for a realistic weak coupling between the subsystem and its environment. Unlike the standard perturbation theory, our technique is robust in the thermodynamic limit.
In my talk I raise the question of the fundamental limits to the size of thermal machines - refrigerators, heat pumps and work producing engines - and I will present the smallest possible ones. I will also discuss the issue of a possible complementarity between size and efficiency and show that even the smallest machines could be maximally efficient. Finally I will present a new point of view over what is work and what do thermal machines actually do.
I provide a reformulation of finite dimensional quantum theory in the circuit framework in terms of mathematical axioms, and a reconstruction of quantum theory from operational postulates. The mathematical axioms for quantum theory are the following: [Axiom 1] Operations correspond to operators. [Axiom 2] Every complete set of positive operators corresponds to a complete set of operations. The following operational postulates are shown to be equivalent to these mathematical axioms: [P1] Definiteness.
Quantum theory can be thought of a noncommutative generalization of classical probability and, from this perspective, it is puzzling that no quantum generalization of conditional probability is in widespread use. In this talk, I discuss one such generalization and show how it can unify the description of ensemble preparations of quantum states, POVM measurements and the description of correlations between quantum systems.
We will analyze different aspects of locality in causal operational probabilistic theories. We will first discuss the notion of local state and local objective information in operational probabilistic theories, and define an operational notion of discord that coincides with quantum discord in the case of quantum theory. Using such notion, we will show that the only theory in which all separable states have null discord is the classical one. We will then analyze locality of transformations, reviewing some general properties of no-signaling channels in causal theories.
The model of local non-Gaussianity, parameterized by the constant non-linearity parameter fNL, is an extremely popular description of non-Gaussianity. However, a mild scale-dependence of fNL is natural. This scale dependence is a new observable, potentially detectable with the Planck satellite, which helps to further discriminate between models of inflation. It is sensitive to properties of the early universe which are not probed by the standard observables.
I will discuss the construction of a holographic dictionary for theories with non-relativistic conformal symmetry, relating the field theory to the dual spacetime. I will focus on the case of Lifshitz spacetimes, giving a definition of asymptotically locally Lifshitz spacetimes and discussing the calculation of field theory observables and holographic renormalization.
We address the problem of testing the dimensionality of classical and quantum systems in a Ã¢ÂÂblack-boxÃ¢ÂÂ scenario. Imagine two uncharacterized devices. The first one allows an experimentalist to prepare a physical system in various ways. The second one allows the experimentalist to perform some measurement on the system. After collecting enough statistics, the experimentalist obtains a Ã¢ÂÂdata tableÃ¢ÂÂ, featuring the probability distribution of the measurement outcomes for each choice of preparation (of the system) and of measurement.
A seminal work by Cleve, HÃÂ¸yer, Toner and Watrous (quant-ph/0404076) proposed a close connection between quantum nonlocality and computational complexity theory by considering nonlocal games and multi-prover interactive proof systems with entangled provers. It opened up the whole area of study of the computational nature of nonlocality. Since then, understanding nonlocality has been one of the major goals in computational complexity theory in the quantum setting. This talk gives a survey of this exciting area.