Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
Understanding dynamics of strongly coupled quantum field theories is an important problem in both condensed matter physics and high energy physics. In condensed matter systems, interacting quantum field theories can arise either at a critical point, or in a finite region of a parameter space. In the former case, massless modes arise as a result of fine tuning of external parameters, while, in the latter case, massless modes are protected by topology and/or symmetry.
We all know that the EPR argument fails, and we can all provide proofs of one sort or another that it can\'t work. But in spite of this, there\'s something curiously tempting about the reasoning, and the temptation sometimes leads to needless perplexity about other issues. This paper will do two things. It will offer a diagnosis of where the EPR argument goes wrong that shows why we should be suspicious long before we get to Bell-type results, and then use the thought behind this diagnosis to suggest an orientation toward thinking about quantum states.
I will review recent progress in testing with cosmological data the inflationary hypothesis for describing the very early universe. I will present snapshots of different aspects of confronting the theory with data, including a \'bottom-up\' approach: the latest results from a systematic reconstruction of the inflationary dynamics; and a \'top- down\' approach: testing specific string theoretic constructions that attempt to implement inflation, while predicting distinctive observables not found in simple field-theory models.
Recent PAMELA and ATIC results may represent a breakthrough in dark matter searches beyond its gravitational imprint. After briefly reviewing the possible (classes of) explanations for the observed excesses in positron and electron cosmic ray fluxes I will focus on a two component dark matter model that may provide an explanation for large boost factors needed in the dark matter annihilation interpretation of the signals.
It has long been thought that theories based on equations of motion possessing derivatives of order higher than second are not unitary. Specifically, they are thought to possess unphysical ghost states with negative norm. However, it turns out that the appropriate Hilbert space for such theories had not been correctly constructed, and when the theory is formulated properly [Bender and Mannheim, PRL 100, 110402 (2008). (arXiv:0706.0207 [hep-th]] there are no ghost states at all and time evolution is fully unitary.
As well known, cosmic ray experiments can put strong constraints on possible Lorentz Invariance Violations. In particular, the presence of the so called GZK \'cut-off\' may indicate that protons do propagate in the Universe as expected from relativistic invariance. The presence of this feature in the spectrum has been convincingly indicated by the HiRes and Auger experiments, while the Auger Observatory has given indication on the correlation of Ultra High Energy Cosmic particles with nearby sources, as predicted by the GZK feature.
The World as a Hologram addresses a very exciting top called the \'holographic principle.\' While still a conjecture, it provides refreshing insight into how science really works - how it is that physicists attempt to create a new and deeper understanding of how the universe works, and is a perfect example of cutting edge 21st century physics in action.
This course is aimed at advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students, and is inspired by a book by the same title, written by Padmanabhan. Each session consists of solving one or two pre-determined problems, which is done by a randomly picked student. While the problems introduce various subjects in Astrophysics and Cosmology, they do not serve as replacement for standard courses in these subjects, and are rather aimed at educating students with hands-on analytic/numerical skills to attack new problems.