Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
Loop quantum cosmology is a non-perturbative canonical quantization of simple cosmological models based on loop quantum gravity. In recent years, a greater control on the underlying quantum theory has revealed a picture where the big bang is replaced by a quantum bounce at Planck scale. The evolution across the bounce is unitary and non-singular without a need of choice of exotic potential or matter.
I describe a variety of bubbles of nothing which do not require a Kaluza-Klein circle but instead may be found in asymptotically flat or AdS spaces without any identifications. There are many such bubbles which expand outwards and threaten to destabilize spacetimes with more than four dimensions. In the AdS case, one can show there are both bubbles and topologically trivial smooth states which violate all of the energy bounds, both classical and quantum, in the corresponding gauge theory.
We argue that, within a broad class of extensions of the Standard Model, there is a tight corellation between the dynamics of the electroweak phase transition and the cubic self-coupling of the Higgs boson: Models which exhibit a strong first-order electroweak phase transition predict a large deviation of the Higgs self-coupling from the Standard Model prediction, as long as no accidental cancellations occur. Order-one deviations are typical.
According to Doering and Isham the spectral topos corresponds to any quantum system. The descriptions of the systems become similar to these given by classical theories. Topoi can also modify local smooth spacetime structure. Supposing that a quantum system modifies the local spacetime structure and interacts with a gravitational field via the spectral topos, a natural pattern for non-gravitating quantum zero-point modes of the system, appears. A way how to add gravity into the spectral topos of a system is presented.
Linear confinement in holographic QCD can be obtained with a soft-wall quadratic dilaton background. We present a dynamical five-dimensional model realizing this setup and discuss the implications for the hypothetical string theory dual to QCD.
Searches for neutrinoless double beta decays could determine if neutrinos are Majorana particles and could measure their absolute mass scale. The initial stage of the Enriched Xenon Observatory project, EXO-200, will look for two-neutrino and neutrinoless double-beta decays of Xe-136 in a liquid-xenon time-projection chamber. By combining the ionization signal with detection of the scintillation light collected in Large Area Avalanche Photodiodes (LAAPDs), an energy resolution of about 1.4% at the decay energy can be achieved.
A new test of the LCDM concordance cosmology is presented.
We systematically explore the parameter space of the state-of-the-art brane-antibrane inflation model (Baumann et al.) which is most rigorously derived from string theory, applying the COBE normalization and constraints on the spectral index. We define an effective volume in parameter space consistent with the constraints, and show that the fine tuning problem is this model is alleviated by four orders of magnitude for the optimal parameter values, relative to a fiducial point which has previously been considered.
The Pierre Auger Observatory in Malargue, Argentina, is the world\'s largest detector for the study of the origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. The experiment stretches over 3000 km^2 and measures cosmic rays with energies above 10^18 eV using two complementary detector types: an array of 1600 particle detectors on the ground, and 4 fluorescence detectors overlooking the ground array from the periphery. The Observatory is now nearing completion, but scientific data taking started at the beginning of 2004.
Using the general structure of the vacuum polarization tensor at non-zero temperature T and finite magnetic field B, the ring contribution to QED effective potential is determined beyond the static (zero momentum) limit. In the limit of weak magnetic field and at high temperature, the improved ring potential consists of a term proportional to T4®5=2, in ad-dition to the well-known T4®3=2 term. In the limit of strong magnetic field, where QED dynamics is dominated by the lowest Landau level (LLL), the ring potential consists of a novel term proportional to 2¼eB m2 ln ¡2®¼ eB m2 ¢.