Since 2002 Perimeter Institute has been recording seminars, conference talks, and public outreach events using video cameras installed in our lecture theatres. Perimeter now has 7 formal presentation spaces for its many scientific conferences, seminars, workshops and educational outreach activities, all with advanced audio-visual technical capabilities. Recordings of events in these areas are all available On-Demand from this Video Library and on Perimeter Institute Recorded Seminar Archive (PIRSA). PIRSA is a permanent, free, searchable, and citable archive of recorded seminars from relevant bodies in physics. This resource has been partially modelled after Cornell University's arXiv.org.
Pure spinors, BRST cohomology and tree-level amplitudes
Three-partite quantum systems exhibit interesting features that are absent in bipartite ones. Several instances are classics by now: the GHZ argument, the W state, the UPB bound entangled states, Svetlichny inequalities... In this talk, I shall discuss some on-going research projects that we are pursuing in my group (in collaboration, or in friendly competition, with other groups) and that involve three-partite entanglement or non-locality: * Activation of non-locality in networks. * Device-independent assessment of the entangling power of a measurement.
In my talk I raise the question of the fundamental limits to the size of thermal machines - refrigerators, heat pumps and work producing engines - and I will present the smallest possible ones. I will also discuss the issue of a possible complementarity between size and efficiency and show that even the smallest machines could be maximally efficient. Finally I will present a new point of view over what is work and what do thermal machines actually do.
The talk will focus primarily on recent work with Alexander Wilce in which we show that any locally tomographic composite of a qubit with any finite-dimensional homogeneous self-dual (equivalently Jordan-algebraic) system must be a standard finite-dimensional quantum (i.e. $C^*$-algebraic) system. I may touch on work in progress with collaborators on composites of arbitrary homogeneous self-dual systems.
I will discuss what we know about creating randomness within physics. Although quantum theory prescribes completely random outcomes to particular processes, could it be that within a yet-to-be-discovered post-quantum theory these outcomes are predictable? We have recently shown that this is not possible, using a very natural assumption. In the present talk, I will discuss some recent progress towards relaxing this assumption, providing arguably the strongest evidence yet for truly random processes in our world.
In recent years, a number of observations have highlighted anomalies that might be explained by invoking dark matter annihilation. The excess of high energy positrons in cosmic rays reported by the PAMELA experiment is only one of the most prominent examples of such anomalies. Models where dark matter annihilates offer an attractive possibility to explain these
Much of the recent progress in understanding quantum theory has been achieved within an operational approach. Within this context quantum mechanics is viewed as a theory for making probabilistic predictions for measurement outcomes following specified preparations. However, thus far some of the essential elements of the theory Ã¢ÂÂ space, time and causal structure Ã¢ÂÂ elude such an operational formulation and are assumed to be fixed.
Over the last 10 years there has been an explosion of Ã¢ÂÂoperational reconstructionsÃ¢ÂÂ of quantum theory. This is great stuff: For, through it, we come to see the myriad ways in which the quantum formalism can be chopped into primitives and, through clever toil, brought back together to form a smooth whole. An image of an IQ-Block puzzle comes to mind, http://www.prismenfernglas.de/iqblock_e.htm. There is no doubt that this is invaluable work, particularly for our understanding of the intricate connections between so many quantum information protocols.
This talk reviews recent and on-going work, much of it joint with Howard Barnum, on the origins of the Jordan-algebraic structure of finite-dimensional quantum theory. I begin by describing a simple recipe for constructing highly symmetrical probabilistic models, and discuss the ordered linear spaces generated by such models. I then consider the situation of a probabilistic theory consisting of a symmetric monoidal *-category of finite-dimensional such models: in this context, the state and effect cones are self-dual.
What is the gravity dual of a strongly interacting state of matter at zero temperature and finite charge density? The simplest candidates are extremal black holes. The presence of charged matter in the bulk can often mean that extremal black holes are not the ground state. In this talk I will discuss the physics of a class of solutions, essentially charged neutron stars, that can be thermodynamically preferred over extremal black holes.