This series consists of talks in areas where gravity is the main driver behind interesting or peculiar phenomena, from astrophysics to gravity in higher dimensions.
In inflationary theories, single field models are typically considered subject to slow-roll conditions. In this talk I will present current observational constraints on deviations from slow-roll, e.g. bounds coming from strong coupling considerations, scale-dependent non-Gaussianities and the tensor-to-scalar ratio. These constraints still allow significant violations of slow-roll conditions. Focusing on non-Gaussian signals, I will discuss a variety of intriguing observable signatures that can be found for fast-rolling single fields.
Bizon and Rostworowski have recently suggested that anti-de Sitter spacetime might be nonlinearly unstable to transfering energy to smaller and smaller scales and eventually forming a small black hole. We consider pure gravity with a negative cosmological constant and find strong support for this idea. While one can start with a single linearized mode and add higher order corrections to construct a nonlinear geon, this is not possible starting with a linear combination of two or more modes. One is forced to add higher frequency modes with growing amplitude.
Constant mean curvature (uniform K) hypersurfaces extend to future null infinity in asymptotically flat spacetimes. With conformal compactification, the entire hypersurface can be covered by a finite spatial grid, eliminating any need an "outgoing wave" boundary condition or for extrapolation to find gravitational wave amplitudes. I will discuss the asymptotic behavior near future null infinity, how this can be simplified by suitable gauge conditions, and how this determines the physical Bondi energy and momentum of the system.
Most predictions for binary compact object formation are normalized to the present-day Milky Way population. In this talk, I suggest the merger rate of black hole binaries could be exceptionally sensitive to the ill-constrained fraction of low-metallicity star formation that ever occurred on our past light cone. I discuss whether and how observations might distinguish binary evolution uncertainties from this strong trend, both in the near future with well-identified electromagnetic counterparts and in the more distant future via third-generation gravitational wave detectors.
Supernovae observations strongly support the presence of a cosmological constant, but its value, which we will call apparent, is normally determined assuming that the Universe can be accurately described by a homogeneous model. Even in the presence of a cosmological constant we cannot exclude nevertheless the presence of a small local inhomogeneity which could affect the apparent value of the cosmological constant.
There is now a consensus that gamma-ray bursts involve
extraordinary power outputs, and highly relativistic dynamics.
The trigger is probably a binary merger or collapse involving
compact objects. The most plausible progenitors, ranging from
NS-NS mergers to various hypernova-like scenarios, eventually
lead to the formation of a black hole with a debris torus around it.
The various modes of energy extraction from such systems are discussed.
Today there is robust observational evidence of dark and compact objects in X-ray binary systems with a mass of 5-20 $M_\odot$ and in galactic nuclei with a mass of $10^5 - 10^9$ $M_\odot$. The conjecture is that all these objects are the Kerr black holes predicted by General Relativity, as they cannot be explained otherwise without introducing new physics. However, there are no directs observational evidences. In this talk, I discuss how the Kerr black hole hypothesis can be tested with present and future X-ray data and the current constraints on the nature of this objects.
TeV-scale models of quantum gravity predict the formation of mini black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. If these black holes can be treated, at least for part of their evolution, as semi-classical objects, they will emit Hawking radiation. In this talk we review the modeling of this evaporation process, particularly for the case when the black hole is rotating. A detailed understanding of the Hawking radiation is necessary for accurate simulations of black hole events at the LHC.
Cross-correlation of gravitational-wave (GW) data streams has been used to search for stochastic backgrounds, and the same technique was applied to look for periodic GWs from the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Sco X-1. Recently a technique was developed which refines the cross-correlation scheme to take full advantage of the signal model for periodic gravitational waves from rotating neutron stars. By varying the time window over which data streams are correlated, the search can "trade off" between parameter sensitivity and computational cost.