This series consists of talks in the area of Quantum Fields and Strings.
I discuss a string theoretic approach to integrable lattice models. This approach provides a unified perspective on various important notions in lattice models, and relates these notions to four-dimensional N = 1 supersymmetric field theories and their surface operators. I explain how my construction connects to Costello's work and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili correspondence.
The properties of physical processes reflect themselves in the structure of the relevant observables. This idea has been largely exploited for the flat space S-matrix, whose analytic structure is determined by locality and unitary, the two pillars which our current understanding of nature is based on. In this context, it has been possible to find new mathematical structures whose properties turn out to be the ones we ascribe to scattering processes in flat-space, so that both unitarity and locality can be viewed as emergent from some more fundamental structure.
The talk will review the computation of the three point function of gauge-invariant operators in the planar N=4 SYM theory using integrability-based methods. The structure constant can be decomposed, as proposed by Basso, Komatsu and Vieira, in terms of two form-factor-like objects (hexagons). The multiple sums and integrals implied by the hexagon decomposition can be performed in the large-charge limit, and be compared to the results obtained by semiclassics. I will discuss a method to perform these sums and the contributions currently accessible by this approach.
I will introduce the spectral function method in the context of conformal bootstrap. I will discuss some applications of this method in two dimensions: (1) substantial evidence for the conjecture that the only unitary c>1 CFT with Virasoro primaries of bounded spin is Liouville theory, (2) detailed modular constraints on the spectrum of small c CFTs, (3) spectral density of large c CFTs with large gap, in connection to the (non-)universality of BTZ black hole entropy.
I will discuss the chiral algebra W_infty which is obtained from the Virasoro algebra by adding fields of spin 3, 4, .... Via a non-local non-linear map one can show that it is equivalent to Tsymbaliuk's Yangian of affine u(1). In this way we find an infinite number of commuting conserved charges. Diagonalizing these, the representation theory reduces to combinatorial study of plane partitions, 3-dimensional generalization of the Young diagrams. Tsymbaliuk's presentation can be derived from RTT relations using Maulik-Okounkov's free boson R-matrix.
Recently a boundary energy-momentum tensor Tzz has been constructed from the soft graviton operator for any 4D quantum theory of gravity in asymptotically flat space. Up to an "anomaly" which is one-loop exact, Tzz generates a Virasoro action on the 2D celestial sphere at null infinity. Here we show by explicit construction that the effects of the IR divergent part of the anomaly can be eliminated by a one-loop renormalization that shifts Tzz.
The subject of quantum field theory in mixed states of quantum matter is an old and rich one. The natural setting to discuss field theory in a mixed state is the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism. The subject of this talk is the set of peculiar symmetries that arise in Schwinger-Keldysh theories, and how they may be accounted for in effective field theory. In particular, when the mixed state is thermal, the effective description is constrained by two BRST-like supercharges which, at low energies, generate an algebra akin to minimal supersymmetric quantum mechanics.
The conformal bootstrap aims to calculate scaling dimensions and correlation functions in various theories, starting from general principles such as unitarity and crossing symmetry. I will explain that local operators are not independent of each other but organize into analytic functions of spin, and I will present a formula which quantifies the consequences of this fact. This will include a controlled approximation to the operator spectrum at large spin, as well as new bounds over the strength of bulk higher-derivative interactions in large-N theories with a sparse spectrum.
We study the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis in chaotic conformal ﬁeld theories (CFTs) of arbitrary dimensions by computing the reduced density matrices of small size in energy eigenstates. We show that in the inﬁnite volume limit this operator is well-approximated by a “universal” density matrix which is its projection to the primary operators that have nonzero thermal one-point functions. These operators in all two-dimensional CFTs and holographic higher-dimensional CFTs are the polynomials of stress tensor.
I will discuss a new class of supersymmetric Wilson loop operators in pure N=2 Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory. These Wilson loops preserve one supercharge on-shell and wrap arbitrary Legendrian knots in the standard contact R^3. I will also explain a relation, motivated by a global picture of contact three-manifolds, between these loop operators and chiral current algebra in two dimensions. This talk is directly related to, but independent of, my preceding Friday talk in the Mathematical Physics seminar.