This series consists of weekly discussion sessions on foundations of quantum Theory and quantum information theory. The sessions start with an informal exposition of an interesting topic, research result or important question in the field. Everyone is strongly encouraged to participate with questions and comments.
After a brief overview of the three broad classes of superconducting quantum bits (qubits)--flux, charge and phase--I describe experiments on single and coupled flux qubits. The quantum state of a flux qubit is measured with a Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID). Single flux qubits exhibit the properties of a spin-1/2 system, including superposition of quantum states, Rabi oscillations and spin echoes.
Consider a discrete quantum system with a d-dimensional state space. For certain values of d, there is an elegant information-theoretic uncertainty principle expressing the limitation on one's ability to simultaneously predict the outcome of each of d+1 mutually unbiased--or mutually conjugate--orthogonal measurements. (The allowed values of d include all powers of primes, and at present it is not known whether any value of d is
We give a communication problem between two players, Alice and Bob, that can be solved by Alice sending a quantum message to Bob, for which any classical interactive protocol requires exponentially more communication.
We show that singlets composed of multiple multi-level quantum systems can naturally arise as the ground state of a physically-motivated Hamiltonian. The Hamiltonian needs to be one which simply exchanges the states of nearest neighbours in any graph of interacting d-level quantum systems (qudits) as long as the graph also has d sites. We point out that local measurements on some of these qudits, with the freedom of choosing a distinct measurement basis at each qudit randomly from an infinite set of bases, project the remainder onto a singlet state.
We propose an extended quantum theory, in which the number of degrees of freedom K behaves as FOURTH power the number N of distinguishable states. As the simplex of classical N--point probability distributions can be embedded inside a higher dimensional convex body of mixed quantum states, one can further increase the dimensionality constructing the set of extended quantum states. The embedding proposed corresponds to an assumption that the physical system described in N dimensional Hilbert space is coupled with an auxiliary subsystem of the same dimensionality.
If a large quantum computer (QC) existed today, what type of physical problems could we efficiently simulate on it that we could not simulate on a conventional computer? In this talk, I argue that a QC could solve some relevant physical "questions" more efficiently. First, I will focus on the quantum simulation of quantum systems satisfying different particle statistics (e.g., anyons), using a QC made of two-level physical systems or qubits.
A multi-partite entanglement measure is constructed via the distance or angle of the pure state to its nearest unentangled state.
Kolmogorov complexity is a measure of the information contained in a binary string. We investigate the notion of quantum Kolmogorov complexity, a measure of the information required to describe a quantum state. We show that for any definition of quantum Kolmogorov complexity measuring the number of classical bits required to describe a pure quantum state, there exists a pure n-qubit state which requires exponentially many bits of description. This is shown by relating the classical communication complexity to the quantum Kolmogorov complexity.
Although entanglement constitutes one of the most remarkable differences between classical and quantum mechanics, and entanglement does have directly observable consequences, entanglement is not a regular observable like momentum or energy. It is rather a non-linear functional of a typically large set of such observables.