This series consists of talks in the areas of Cosmology, Gravitation and Particle Physics.
The growth of matter perturbations in the presence of dark energy with small fluctuations depends on the speed of sound of these fluctuations and the comoving scale. The growth index can differ from the value that it takes in the limit of no dark energy perturbations by an amount comparable to the accuracy of future observations. This may contribute to a better characterization of the dark energy properties.
If primordial black holes are produced at the end of inflation, they should quickly decay via Hawking radiation. For the most part the radiation signature of these black holes will be wiped out, as the universe is still radiation dominated when they disappear. The exception to this would be a stochastic background of gravity waves. I present an algorithm by which the spectrum of radiation can be calculated, and discuss the dependence on the initial energy density and the number of relativistic species.
I will show the calculation of the probability distribution for the volume of the Universe after slow-roll inflation both in the eternal and the non-eternal regime. Far from the eternal regime the probability distribution for the number of e-foldings, defined as one third of the logarithm of the volume, is sharply peaked around the number of e-foldings of the classical inflaton trajectory.
I will review recent progress in testing with cosmological data the inflationary hypothesis for describing the very early universe. I will present snapshots of different aspects of confronting the theory with data, including a \'bottom-up\' approach: the latest results from a systematic reconstruction of the inflationary dynamics; and a \'top- down\' approach: testing specific string theoretic constructions that attempt to implement inflation, while predicting distinctive observables not found in simple field-theory models.
It has long been thought that theories based on equations of motion possessing derivatives of order higher than second are not unitary. Specifically, they are thought to possess unphysical ghost states with negative norm. However, it turns out that the appropriate Hilbert space for such theories had not been correctly constructed, and when the theory is formulated properly [Bender and Mannheim, PRL 100, 110402 (2008). (arXiv:0706.0207 [hep-th]] there are no ghost states at all and time evolution is fully unitary.
Gravitomagnetism is a subtle concept. Adding Lorentz invariance to Newtonian gravity leads to magnetism, but Einsteinian gravitomagnetism differs from Maxwell\'s electromagnetism. The differences lead to confusion when Lense-Thirring precession is wrongly ascribed to gyroscopes, and when authors disagree about whether lunar laser ranging has measured gravitomagnetism. To clarify these issues, we analyze electric and magnetic effects in local Lorentz frames using the tetrad formalism.
It is argued that space-time is discretized on the basis of the gravitational interactions among the degrees of freedom of quantum fields.Configurations of fields fall into 2 classes,propagating (cisplanckian in length scale) and those that are transplanckian, sequestered in the space-time that is localized in discrete elements.Only the former determine the hubble expansion parameter and are therefore used to construct the inflaton.The model used for discretization is Sorkin\'s causet construction.From this the covariant massy Klein Gordon equation can be rationalized.
The Lee-Wick model has recently been put forwards as an alternative to supersymmetry for solving the hierarchy problem of particle physics. I will show that, modulo important consistency questions, coupling the Lee-Wick model to cosmology leads to a bouncing universe cosmology with a scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological fluctuations emerging from quantum vacuum fluctuations in the contracting phase.