This series consists of talks in the area of Condensed Matter.
Two seemingly different quantum field theories may secretly describe the same underlying physics — a phenomenon known as “duality". I will review some recent developments in field theory dualities in (2+1) dimensions and some of their applications in condensed matter physics, in particular in quantum Hall effect and quantum phase transitions.
Clean and interacting periodically driven quantum systems are believed to exhibit a single, trivial “infinite-temperature” Floquet-ergodic phase. By contrast, I will show that their disordered Floquet many-body localized counterparts can exhibit distinct ordered phases with spontaneously broken symmetries delineated by sharp transitions. Some of these are analogs of equilibrium states, while others are genuinely new to the Floquet setting.
The Kovtun-Son-Starinets conjecture that the ratio of the viscosity to the entropy density was bounded from below by fundamental constants has inspired over a decade of conjectures about fundamental bounds on the hydrodynamic and transport coefficients of strongly interacting quantum systems. I will present two complementary and (relatively) rigorous approaches to proving bounds on the transport coefficients of strongly interacting systems. Firstly, I will discuss lower bounds on the conductivities (and thus, diffusion constants) of inhomogeneous fluids, based around the principle that
Entanglement and entropy are key concepts standing at the foundations of quantum and statistical mechanics, respectively. In the last decade the study of quantum quenches revealed that these two concepts are intricately intertwined. Although the unitary time evolution ensuing from a pure initial state maintains the system globally at zero entropy, at long time after the quench local properties are captured by an appropriate statistical ensemble with non zero thermodynamic entropy, which can be interpreted as the entanglement accumulated during the dynamics.
Branch point twist fields play an important role in the study of measures of entanglement such as the Rényi entropies and the Negativity. In 1+1 dimensions such measures can be written in terms of multi-point functions of branch point twist fields. For 1+1-dimensional integrable quantum field theories and also in conformal field theory much is known about how to compute correlation functions and, with the help of the twist field, this knowledge can be exploited in order to gain new insights into the properties of various entanglement measures.
Dataset augmentation, the practice of applying a wide array of domain-specific transformations to synthetically expand a training set, is a standard tool in supervised learning. While effective in tasks such as visual recognition, the set of transformations must be carefully designed, implemented, and tested for every new domain, limiting its re-use and generality. In this talk, I will describe recent methods that transform data not in input space, but in a feature space found by unsupervised learning.
The hydrodynamic approximation is an extremely powerful tool to describe the behavior of many-body systems such as gases. At the Euler scale (that is, when variations of densities and currents occur only on large space-time scales), the approximation is based on the idea of local thermodynamic equilibrium: locally, within fluid cells, the system is in a Galilean or relativistic boost of a Gibbs equilibrium state. This is expected to arise in conventional gases thanks to ergodicity and Gibbs thermalization, which in the quantum case is embodied by the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis.
Frustrated magnets provide a fertile ground for discovering exotic states of matter, such as those with topologically non-trivial properties. Motivated by several near-ideal material realizations, we focus on aspects of the two-dimensional kagome antiferromagnet. I present two of our works in this area both involving the spin-1/2 XXZ antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model. First, guided by a previous field theoretical study, we explore the XY limit ($J_z=0$) for the case of 2/3 magnetization (i.e.
Many model quantum spin systems have been proposed to realize critical points or phases described by 2+1 dimensional conformal gauge theories. On a torus of size L and modular parameter τ, the energy levels of such gauge theories equal (1/L) times universal functions of τ. We compute the universal spectrum of QED3, a U(1) gauge theory with Nf two-component massless Dirac fermions, in the large-Nf limit.
A fundamental assumption of quantum statistical mechanics is that closed isolated systems always thermalize under their own dynamics. Progress on the topic of many-body localization has challenged this vital assumption, describing a phase where thermalization, and with it, equilibrium thermodynamics, breaks down.