This series covers all areas of research at Perimeter Institute, as well as those outside of PI's scope.
Many systems take the form of networks: the Internet, the World Wide Web, social networks, distribution networks, citation networks, food webs, and neural networks are just a few examples. I will show some recent empirical results on the structure of these and other networks, particularly emphasizing degree sequences, clustering, and vertex-vertex correlations. I will also discuss some graph theoretical models of networks that incorporate these features, and give examples of how both empirical measurements and models can lead to interesting and useful predictions about the real world.
Noncommutative geometry is a more general formulation of geometry that does not require coordinates to commute. As such it unifies quantum theory and geometry and should appear in any effective theory of quantum gravity. In this general talk we present quantum groups as a microcosm of this unification in the same way that Lie groups are a microcosm of usual geometry, and give a flavour of some of the deeper insights they provide. One of them is the ability to interchange the roles of quantum theory and gravity by `arrow reversal'.
The causal set -- mathematically a finitary partial order -- is a candidate discrete substratum for spacetime. I will introduce this idea and describe some aspects of causal set kinematics, dynamics, and phenomenology, including, as time permits, a notion of fractal dimension, a (classical) dynamics of stochastic growth, and an idea for explaining some of the puzzling large numbers of cosmology. I will also mention some general insights that have emerged from the study of causal sets, the most recent one concerning the role of intermediate length-scales in discrete spacetime theories.
Superconducting circuits based on Josephson junctions are promising candidates for the implementation of solid-state qubits. In most of the recent experiments on these circuits, the qubits are controlled by a classical field containing a large number of photons. The possibility of coherently coupling these systems to a single photon has been recently suggested, opening the possibility to study analogs of quantum optics in condensed matter systems.
A key issue in the context of (compact) extra dimensions is the one of their stability. Any stabilization mechanism is effective only up to some given energy scale; if they can approach this energy, 4$d observers can excite the fluctuations of the internal space, and probe its existence. Stabilization mechanisms introduce fields in the internal space; perturbations of these fields are mixed with perturbations of the metric, so that their study requires a complete GR treatment. After presenting the general framework, I will then discuss some relevant applications.