This series covers all areas of research at Perimeter Institute, as well as those outside of PI's scope.
In my talk I raise the question of the fundamental limits to the size of thermal machines - refrigerators, heat pumps and work producing engines - and I will present the smallest possible ones. I will also discuss the issue of a possible complementarity between size and efficiency and show that even the smallest machines could be maximally efficient. Finally I will present a new point of view over what is work and what do thermal machines actually do.
The quantum mechanical state vector is a complicated object. In particular, the amount of data that must be given in order to specify the state vector (even approximately) increases exponentially with the number of quantum systems. Does this mean that the universe is, in some sense, exponentially complicated? I argue that the answer is yes, if the state vector is a one-to-one description of some part of physical reality. This is the case according to both the Everett and Bohm interpretations.
Sage is a collection of mature open source software for mathematics, and new code, all unified into one powerful and easy-to-use package.
The mission statement of the Sage project is: "Creating a viable free open source alternative to Magma, Maple, Mathematica and Matlab."
More information is available at www.sagemath.org. I will use the Sage notebook (a web interface) to demonstrate the use of Sage for a variety of mathematical problems and comment on its design and future direction.
I will discuss the growth of entanglement under a quantum quench at point contacts of simple fractional quantum Hall fluids and its relation with the measurement of local observables. Recently Klich and Levitov recently proposed that, for a free fermion system, the noise generated from a local quantum quench provides a measure of the entanglement entropy. In this work, I will examine the validity of this proposal in the context of a strongly interacting system, the Laughlin FQH states.
I will describe the current state of our attempts to characterize the nature of the Dark Energy, the name given to the unknown phenomenology that is driving the observed accelerating cosmic expansion. There is a historical analogy between our current situation and the days of
Conformal Field Theory is the language in which we often think about strong dynamics, be that in Condensed Matter, Quantum Gravity, or Beyond the Standard Model Physics. AdS/CFT led to significant advances of our understanding. What should come next?
At the time of recombination, 400,000 years after the Big Bang, the structure of the dark matter distribution was extremely simple and can be inferred directly from observations of structure in the cosmic microwave background. At this time dark matter particles had small thermal velocities and their distribution deviated from uniformity only through a gaussian field of small density fluctuations with associated motions. Later evolution was driven purely by gravity and so obeyed the collisionless Boltzmann equation.
Many fundamental results in quantum foundations and quantum information theory can be framed in terms of information-theoretic tasks that are provably (im)possible in quantum mechanics but not in classical mechanics. For example, Bell's theorem, the no-cloning and no-broadcasting theorems, quantum key distribution and quantum teleportation can all naturally be described in this way. More generally, quantum cryptography, quantum communication and quantum computing all rely on intrinsically quantum information-theoretic advantages.
In the last many years a number of metallic solids have been studied that defy understanding within the principles of conventional textbook solid state physics. The most famous are the cuprate high temperature superconductors though many other examples have been found. In this talk I will argue that the mysterious properties of many such materials arises from an imminent `death' of their Fermi surfaces. I will discuss some theoretical ideas on how to kill a Fermi surface, and their implications for experiments.