This series covers all areas of research at Perimeter Institute, as well as those outside of PI's scope.
Entropy comes up all over physics and mathematics in many different guises. However, as one tries to understand its conceptual meaning, entropy often evades the question by shifting into a different shape. Here, I will try to capture the beast by surrounding it from all sides. Assistance by the audience will increase the chance of success.
Recent developments reveal a deep connection between entanglement entropy and the emergence of space time and gravity. In anti-de Sitter space gravity appears to be derived from the first law of thermodynamics for entanglement entropy, which in the large radius limit obeys an area law. Based on insights from string theory, we propose a generalisation of these results to flat space and de Sitter space. In the latter case, the vacuum entanglement entropy has an additional contribution that scales like the volume of the bulk space time.
The known basic building blocks of matter, the quarks and leptons, come in three generations or flavors.
The masses and interactions of the different flavors show a very hierarchical structure and the origin of these hierarchies remains an unsolved mystery of particle physics. The same hierarchies lead to a very high sensitivity of flavor changing processes to new undiscovered particles even outside the reach of direct searches at particle colliders.
Most of the matter in the Universe is dark; determining the composition and interactions of this dark matter is among the defining challenges in particle physics today. I will briefly summarize the present status of dark matter searches and the case for exploration beyond the WIMP paradigm, particularly “light dark matter” close to but beneath the weak scale. I will define sharp milestones in sensitivity needed to decisively explore the best-motivated light dark matter scenarios, and describe experimental techniques to reach these milestones over the next several years.
The spatially-indirect exciton condensates (SIXC) is an interesting ordered electronic state in which coherence is spontaneously established between particles localized in separate two-dimensional layers. I will discuss some of the properties SIXCs, commenting on their counterflow superfluidity, their collective excitations, and on similarities and differences relative to superconductors, easy-plane ferromagnets and anti-ferromagnets, and the standard model of particle physics.
In the last few years there has been significant interest in the possible applications of gauge-gravity duality to condensed matter systems. In this talk I will discuss recent applications of these holographic techniques to strongly correlated systems out of equilibrium. I will argue that insights from general relativity, hydrodynamics and quantum field theory may be combined to yield quantitative predictions for quantum transport.
Over Twenty-five years into the internet era, over twenty years into the WorldWideWeb era, fifteen years into the Google era, and a few years past the Facebook/Twitter era, we've yet to converge on a new long-term methodology for scholarly research communication. I will provide a sociological overview of our current metastable state, and then a technical discussion of the practical implications of literature and usage data considered as computable objects, using arXiv as exemplar.
It has become a platitute to say that black holes are fascinating objects—but they really are, in part because they challenge our understanding of the fundamental reversibility of physical processes.
Modern physics rests on two basic frameworks, quantum theory and general relativity. Quantum gravity aims to unify these two frameworks into one consistent theory. One can expect that such a formulation delivers in particular a novel understanding of space and time as quantum objects.
I will give an introduction to some basic concepts in quantum gravity research and present possible models of quantum space time.
There is an analogy between the propagation of fields in the vicinity of astrophysical black holes and the that of small excitations in fluids and superfluids. This analogy allows one to test, challenge and verify, in tabletop experiments, the elusive processes of black hole mass and angular momentum loss.
I will first present a brief overview on analogue black hole experiments, and then discuss in more detail some of my earlier and more recent experimental and theoretical results on the subject.