Despite being one of the most abundant constituents of the Universe and more than a half a century of study, some of the most fundamental properties of the neutrino have only been recently uncovered, and others still remain unresolved. I will discuss important developments in the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations, a transmutation process that allows neutrinos to change between three types as they propagate in time. In particular, recent discoveries have opened up the possibility of CP violation in neutrino oscillations, asymmetries in the behavior of neutrinos and their anti-matter counterparts. CP violation, along with other unresolved properties of the neutrino, may play a central role in how the universe came to a matter-dominated state. I will also discuss a new generation of experiments that may allow us to establish whether CP violation does indeed occur in neutrino oscillations.