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A Monomial Matrix Formalism to Describe Quantum Many-body States

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We propose a framework to describe and simulate a class of many-body quantum states. We do so by considering joint eigenspaces of sets of monomial unitary matrices, called "M-spaces"; a unitary matrix is monomial if precisely one entry per row and column is nonzero. We show that M-spaces encompass various important state families, such as all Pauli stabilizer states and codes, the AKLT model, Kitaev's anyon models, W states and several others. We furthermore demonstrate how basic properties of M-spaces can transparently be understood by manipulating their monomial stabilizer groups. Finally we show that a large subclass of M-spaces can be simulated efficiently classically with one unified method. [cf. M. Van den Nest, http://arxiv.org/abs/1108.0531]