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Modeling Deviations from Homogeneity in an Inhomogeneous Universe Using Numerical Relativity

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It has long been wondered to what extent the observable properties of an inhomogeneous universe will be measurably different from a corresponding FLRW model. Here, we use tools from numerical relativity to study the properties of photons traversing an inhomogeneous universe. We evolve the full, unconstrained Einstein field equations for a spacetime containing dust, with a spectrum of long-wavelength density perturbations similar to the observed one. We then integrate the optical scalar equations along paths through this numerical spacetime, with all paths terminating at an observer situated similarly to ourselves, and construct the resulting Hubble diagrams.