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Microscopic structure of quantum black holes

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If a black hole horizon has its microscopic structure as is conjectured by the candidates of quantum gravity, the dispersion relation of gravitational waves (GWs) near the horizon may be drastically modified since its wavelength can be comparable to the size of the microscopic structure because of its infinite gravitational blue-shift near the horizon.  We investigate ringdown-GWs from a perturbed black hole with such a modified dispersion relation and found that the change of modified dispersion relation near the horizon would lead to the partial reflection of infalling GWs at the horizon and echo-signals may appear in the late-time of ringdown-GWs. This implies that the echoes can be a supporting evidence of the existence of microscopic degrees of freedom on black hole horizons.