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Mechanisms of Fracton Phases

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Three dimensional fracton phases are new type of phases featuring exotic excitations called fractons. They are gapped point-like excitations constrained to move in sub-dimensional space. In this talk, I will present the gapped fracton topological order discovered in exact solvable models and gapless fracton phase described by U(1) symmetric tensor gauge theories. Their relation with ordinary topological ordered phase would be discussed in detail. Particularly, the fracton topological order exhibited in an exact solvable model called X-cube model can be constructed by coupling toric code layers. And it can also be obtained from a particular rank-2 symmetric tensor gauge theory called scalar charge theory by Higgs mechanism and partial confinement transition.