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Emergent Gauge Fields and their Condensation in Quantum Spin Liquids

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Large quantum fluctuations in certain quantum spin systems destroy long range magnetic order such as antiferromagnetism. Resulting paramagnetic states are called a quantum spin liquids. These states support emergent gauge fields [1]. Under certain conditions, emergent gauge fields condense in the ground state, leading to a chiral spin liquid state [2]. A condensed `magnetic field' for example, correspond to presence of spontaneous circulating spin current or spin `chirality'[3]. In the light of recent search for spin liquids in frustrated quantum antiferromagnets, we revive our earlier approach and show that a variety of chiral spin liquid states are possible in 2D lattices.   [1] G. Baskaran and P.W. Anderson, Phys. Rev., B 37, 580 (1988) [2] V. Kalmeyer and R. B. Laughlin, Phys. Rev. Lett., 59, 2095 (1987) [3] X.-G. Wen, F. Wilczek and A. Zee, Phys. Rev., B 39, 11413 (1989) [4] G Baskaran, Phys. Rev. Lett., 63, 2524 (1989)