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Color Confinement, Bose-Einstein Condensation and Holographic Emergent Space

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We propose a unified manner of understanding two important phenomena: color confinement in large-N gauge theory, and Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). We do this by clarifying the relation between the standard criteria, based on the off-diagonal long range order (ODLRO) for the BEC and the Polyakov loop for gauge theory: the constant offset of the distribution of Polyakov line phase is ODLRO. Indistinguishability associated with the symmetry group --- SU(N) or O(N) in gauge theory, and S_N permutation in the system of identical bosons --- plays the key role in both cases. This viewpoint may have implications to confinement at finite N, and to quantum gravity via gauge/gravity duality.