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Bosonic particle-correlated states

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Quantum many-body problems are notorious hard. This is partly because the Hilbert space becomes exponentially big with the particle number N. While exact solutions are often considered intractable, numerous approaches have been proposed using approximations. A common trait of these approaches is to use an ansatz such that the number of parameters either does not depend on N or is proportional to N, e.g., the matrix-product state for spin lattices, the BCS wave function for superconductivity, the Laughlin wave function for fractional quantum Hall effects, and the Gross-Pitaecskii theory for BECs. Among them the product ansatz for BECs has precisely predicted many useful properties of Bose gases at ultra-low temperature. As particle-particle correlation becomes important, however, it begins to fail. To capture the quantum correlations, we propose a new
set of states, which constitute a natural generalization of the product-state ansatz. Our state of N=d& times;n identical particles is derived by symmetrizing the n-fold product of a d-particle quantum state. For fixed d, the parameter space of our state does not grow with N. Numerically, we show that our ansatz gives the right description for the ground state and time evolution of the two-site Bose-Hubbard model.