This series consists of talks in areas where gravity is the main driver behind interesting or peculiar phenomena, from astrophysics to gravity in higher dimensions.
The Advanced LIGO observatories have successfully completed their first science run. Data were collected from September 2015 to January 2016, with a sensitivity a few times better than initial instruments in the hundreds of Hertz band. In this talk I will describe the searches for gravitational-wave transients performed during the first few weeks of the science run. Furthermore, I will describe the methods devised to characterize transient gravitational-wave sources and their applications in the advanced gravitational-wave detector era.
Generation of accurate mock observations tailored specifically to upcoming surveys such as Advanced ACT, CHIME, and LSST is a key technical challenge in cosmology. Traditional approaches involving N-body simulation are fraught with difficulties due to increasingly large survey volumes and depths. Typically, statistical ensembles can only be realized for a few carefully-chosen parameters, limiting exploration to a significantly restricted cosmological model space.
In the coming years, astrophysical observations of strongly gravitating systems will provide us with exciting new data to study extremely compact objects and Einstein’s theory of general relativity. In particular, gravitational wave observatories will soon reach the sensitivity required to detect merging black holes and neutron stars, while the Event Horizon Telescope is about to observe accretion flows around two supermassive black holes with sub-horizon resolution.
The mergers of black hole-neutron star and neutron star-neutron star binaries are one of the primary targets for Advanced LIGO and other gravitational wave detectors now coming online. In addition, these events may source a number of electromagnetic counterparts, including short gamma-ray bursts and ejecta powered transients. Particularly in the case of binaries that are dynamically-assembled in dense stellar regions like globular clusters, these mergers may involve neutron stars with non-negligible spin.
Neutron stars offer us an excellent testbed to probe fundamental physics, such as nuclear physics and strong-field gravity. Unlike the well-studied mass-radius relation for neutron stars that depends strongly on their internal structure, I first report unexpected universal relations that we found among the moment of inertia, tidal Love number and quadrupole moment ("I-Love-Q" relations) that are insensitive to the internal structure.
This is the first of two talks on recent advances in our understanding of hydrodynamics as a generic theory of near-thermal dynamics of density matrices. In this talk I will focus on the structure of the hydrodynamic gradient expansion subject to the Second Law of thermodynamics. I will present an eightfold classification scheme and an explicit solution at all orders in derivatives of hydrodynamic transport consistent with the Second Law.
Plasma-filled magnetospheres can extract energy from a spinning black hole and provide the power source for a variety of observed astrophysical phenomena. These magnetospheres are described by the highly nonlinear equations of force-free electrodynamics. Typically these equations can only be solved numerically, but they become amenable to analytic solution in the extremal limit when the black hole achieves maximal angular momentum and an infinite-dimensional conformal symmetry emerges in the high-redshift region near its horizon.
Advanced LIGO has recently started operating, with the promise that discoveries of gravitational wave transients will begin within in the next few years. As astrophysical observatories, LIGO and similar experiments may inform our knowledge of a variety of topics, including heavy element formation, dynamical capture of black holes, and the neutron star equation of state. In this talk, I will highlight recent efforts to quickly identify and distribute transients found with LIGO, and explore some of the astrophysics questions we hope to address.
In this talk I will describe numerical constructions of gravitational
duals of theories deformed by localized Dirac delta sources for scalar
operators. We perform two different constructions, one at zero and
the other at nonzero temperature. Surprisingly we find that imposing the preservation of scale
invariance at zero temperature requires the bulk scalar self-interaction potential to be
the one found in a certain Kaluza-Klein compactification of 11D supergravity.
We introduce the notion of a local shadow for a black hole and determine its shape for the particular case of a distorted Schwarzschild black hole. Considering the lowest-order even and odd multiple moments, we compute the relation between the deformations of the shadow of a Schwarzschild black hole and the distortion multiple moments. For the range of values of multiple moments that we consider, the horizon is deformed much less than its corresponding shadow, suggesting the horizon is more `rigid'.