Excursions in the Dark Workshop
A relativistic modified gravity (MOG) leads to a self-consistent, stable gravity theory that can describe the solar system, galaxy and clusters of galaxies data and cosmology without dark matter. A review is given of fits to galaxy rotation curves, mass profiles of X-ray clusters and weak and strong lensing of galaxy clusters including the bullet cluster E10657-56. MOG can explain the CMB power spectrum and the observed acceleration of the expansion of the universe.
We show that the recently suggested Euclidean quantum gravity density matrix of the Universe which generates the set of inflationary universes is, in fact, the density matrix of the microcanonical ensemble in {\em Lorentzian} quantum cosmology.
I describe how vacuum energy can be controlled by a symmetry principle that necessitates a ghost sector. I argue that the implied instability of Minkowski spacetime is natural and consistent with experience if gravity is fundamentally Lorentz-violating, and describe attempts to construct such exotic dynamics. I briefly discuss the more robust experimental/observational signatures of such a scenario.
Motivated by the severity of the bounds on Lorentz violation in the presence of ordinary gravity, we study frameworks in which Lorentz violation does not affect the spacetime geometry. We show that there are at least two inequivalent classes of spontaneous Lorentz breaking that even in the presence of gravity result in Minkowski space. The first one generically corresponds to the condensation of tensor fields with tachyonic mass, which in turn is related to ghost-condensation.
In this talk, I summarize a current status of the DGP braneworld emphasizing the theoretical consistency of the model.First I review the behaviour of the linearized gravity and show the existence of the ghost. Then I discuss the issue of the non-linearity of gravity in this model.
We present analytically solvable nonlinear models of structure formation in a Universe with only dust, using LTB solutions. We show that the luminosity distance-redshift relation has significant corrections at low redshift (Doppler effect). We discuss different possibilities that could further enhance this effect and mimick Dark Energy. We find negligible integrated effect, suppressed by $(L/R_{H})^3$ (where $L$ is the size of the structure, and $R_{H}$ is the Hubble radius) and we make contact with cosmological perturbation theory.
We consider the effect that dynamical selection principles could have on the string landscape and for determining the value of the cosmological constant. The underlying symmetries of string theory, along with the dynamics of moduli in the low energy effective field theory, seem to suggest that not all vacua are created equal. However, in some simple models many vacua are alike and this degeneracy may suggest a *non-anthropic* approach to understanding the observed value of the cosmological constant.