This series consists of talks in the areas of Cosmology, Gravitation and Particle Physics.
Studying the smallest self-bound dark matter structure in our Universe can yield important clues about the fundamental particle nature of dark matter, and galaxy-scale strong gravitational lensing provides a unique way to detect and characterize dark matter on small scales at cosmological distances from the Milky Way. Research in this field can be broadly separated into works that aim to directly detect individual perturbers and works that aim to statistically constrain the matter distribution by looking at collective perturbations caused by an unresolved population of perturbers.
Mapping of galaxy density fluctuations on large scales is one of the most important goals of observational cosmology in this decade. These observations can significantly improve our knowledge of the universe, its origins and composition. In this talk I will review some of the science goals of the ongoing and future spectroscopic galaxy surveys and explain how these goals can be met. In particular, I will focus on some recent progress in theoretical modelling of the nonlinear structure formation and show how it can be used to extract cosmology from observations of the cosmic web.
Current and forthcoming observing runs at ground-based laser interferometry detectors are starting to uncover gravitational waves from binary black hole (BBH) mergers at cosmological distances, and a fraction of them are expected to be gravitationally lensed by intervening galaxy or cluster lenses with multiple images. Such strongly lensed events, if discovered, may offer a precious opportunity to localize BBH host galaxies and probe global and small-scale property of the lens mass profile.
Understanding galaxy formation is an outstanding problem in Astrophysics. The feedback processes that drive it, exploding stars and accretion onto supermassive black holes, are poorly understood. This results in an order unity uncertainty in the distribution of the gas inside halos, the ``missing baryon problem''. Because baryons are 15% of the total mass in the universe, this baryonic uncertainty is the largest theoretical systematics for percent precision weak lensing surveys like DES, HSC, Rubin Observatory, Roman Observatory and Euclid.
Measurements of gravitational lensing in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) allow the dark matter distribution to be mapped out to uniquely high redshifts. After giving a brief overview of current and upcoming CMB lensing measurements, I will focus on two new ways of using CMB lensing, in combination with galaxy surveys, to constrain the early universe. First, I will explore how CMB lensing and galaxy surveys could provide insights into current discrepancies in measurements of the Hubble constant.
On Monday July 20th, we announced the final results from extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS), the last large-scale structure galaxy survey to be undertaken within the umbrella of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). This marks the culmination of 20 years of galaxy surveys undertaken using the Sloan Foundation Telescope.
The standard cosmological model determined from the accurate cosmic microwave background measurements made by the Planck satellite implies a value of the Hubble constant H0 that is 4.2 standard deviations lower than the one determined from Type Ia supernovae. The Planck best fit model also predicts lower values of the matter density fraction Om and clustering amplitude S8 compared to those obtained from the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 data.
Zoom Link: https://pitp.zoom.us/j/93581608531?pwd=d3NRQXRGNTNISkhuWmxLYkJMZllTUT09
Based on recent work arXiv:1902.08207 and arXiv:1911.02018 with E. Verlinde.
Over the last decade, the Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structure (EFTofLSS) has emerged as a frontrunner in the effort to produce accurate models of cosmological statistics. Quantities such as power spectra can be fit with sub-percent precision, and there is a wealth of literature applying the formalism to more complex statistics. It is interesting to ask what lies ahead for the theory. Can it be used for cosmological parameter inference? And is it just for statistics based on the 3D density field?
COVID-19 is a mysterious disease associated with a large number of unanswered questions.
In this talk we review what is currently known, what is still a mystery and highlight some of our recent work on the role of climate, blood type and vaccinations on the transmission of the disease and on the extent of "dark infections", the asymptomatic and untested proportion of infections. We end with a list of open research questions that may be amenable to techniques from physics and data science.