New Ideas in Low-Energy Tests of Fundamental Physics

Conference Date: 
Monday, June 16, 2014 (All day) to Thursday, June 19, 2014 (All day)
Scientific Areas: 
Particle Physics

 

The purpose of the workshop is to bring together members of theoretical and experimental communities interested in finding new fundamental applications to continuing advancement of new high-precision tools in AMO physics. The foci of the workshop will include novel approaches to searches for axions, axion-like particles and other light exotic fields, which can serve as dark matter candidates; new ideas in application of the networks of time-correlated devices (atomic magnetometers, atomic clocks etc.); new ways of testing properties of gravitational interactions and fundamental constants as well as developing new gravitational wave detectors. 

Sponsorship for this conference has been provided by:

Asimina Arvanitaki, Perimeter Institute
Geoff Blewitt, University of Nevada
Kfir Blum, Institute for Advanced Study
Dmitry Budker, University of California, Berkeley & Helmholtz Institute, Mainz
Robin Cote, University of Conneticut
Andrei Derevianko, University of Nevada
Vladimir Dzuba, University of New South Wales
Valerio Faraoni, Bishop's University
Andrew Geraci, University of Nevada
Blayne Heckel, Washington University
Jason Hogan, Stanford University
Marc Kamionkowski, John Hopkins University
Hidetoshi Katori, RIKEN
Derek Jackson Kimball, California State University
Mikhail Kozlov, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute
Nathan Leefer, University of California, Berkeley
Eli Levenson-Falk, Stanford University
Mikhail Lukin, Harvard University
Jeremy Mardon, Stanford University
David Marsh, Perimeter Institute
Ekkehard Peik, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt
Maxim Pospelov, Perimeter Institute & University of Victoria
Josef Pradler, Johns Hopkins University
Szymon Pustelny, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski
Surjeet Rajendran, Stanford University
Adam Ritz, University of Victoria
Michael Romalis, Princeton University
Jeff Sherman, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Yevgeny Stadnik, University of New South Wales
Jason Stalnaker, Oberlin
Raman Sundrum, University of Maryland
Guglielmo Tino, Istituto Nationale di Fisicia Nucleare
Lutz Trahms, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt

  • Haipeng An, Perimeter Institute
  • Asimina Arvanitaki, Perimeter Institute
  • Geoff Blewitt, University of Nevada
  • Kfir Blum, Institute for Advanced Study
  • Dmitry Budker, University of California, Berkeley & Helmholtz Institute, Mainz
  • Witold Chalupczak, National Physics Laboratory
  • Robin Cote, University of Conneticut
  • Andrei Derevianko, University of Nevada
  • Vladimir Dzuba, University of New South Wales
  • Shmuel Elitzur, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
  • Valerio Faraoni, Bishop's University
  • Andrew Geraci, University of Nevada
  • Stefania Gori, Perimeter Institute
  • Peter Graham, Stanford University
  • Blayne Heckel, Washington University
  • Jason Hogan, Stanford University
  • Leo Hollberg, Stanford University
  • Eder Izaguirre, Perimeter Institute
  • Justin Jeet, University of California, Los Angeles
  • Marc Kamionkowski, John Hopkins University
  • Hidetoshi Katori, RIKEN
  • Derek Jackson Kimball, California State University
  • Mikhail Kozlov, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute
  • Gordon Krnjaic, Perimeter Institute
  • Keith Lee, Perimeter Institute
  • Nathan Leefer, University of California, Berkeley
  • Luis Lehner, Perimeter Institute
  • Eli Levenson-Falk, Stanford University
  • Mikhail Lukin, Harvard University
  • Jeremy Mardon, Stanford University
  • David Marsh, Perimeter Institute
  • Rob Myers, Perimeter Institute
  • Duncan O'Dell, McMaster University
  • Chris Pankow, University of Wisconsin
  • Ekkehard Peik, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt
  • Maxim Pospelov, Perimeter Institute & University of Victoria
  • Josef Pradler, John Hopkins University
  • Frans Pretorius, Princeton University
  • Szymon Pustelny, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski
  • Surjeet Rajendran, Stanford University
  • Adam Ritz, University of Victoria
  • Michael Romalis, Princeton University
  • Philip Schuster, Perimeter Institute
  • Jeff Sherman, National Institute of Standards and Technology
  • Brian Shuve, Perimeter Institute
  • Joshua Smith, California State University
  • Yevgeny Stadnik, University of New South Wales
  • Jason Stalnaker, Oberlin
  • Raman Sundrum, University of Maryland
  • Guglielmo Tino, Istituto Nationale di Fisicia Nucleare
  • Natalia Toro, Perimeter Institute
  • Lutz Trahms, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt
  • Itay Yavin, Perimeter Institute & McMaster University

 

Schedule subject to change

Monday, June 16, 2014

Time

Event

Location

8:30 – 9:00am

Registration

Reception

9:00 – 10:10am

Welcome and Opening Remarks

Bob Room

10:10 – 11:00am

Asimina Arvanitaki, Perimeter Institute
Dmitry BudkerUniversity of California, Berkeley
Derek Jackson Kimball, California State University
Maxim Pospelov, Perimeter Institute & University of Victoria

Introduction
Scope and goals of the workshop
Open questions in the field

Bob Room

11:00 – 11:30am

Coffee Break

Bistro – 1st Floor

11:30 – 12:30am

Exp Review: atomic clocks

Ekkehard Peik, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt
Atomic Clocks and Tests of Fundamental Physics

Bob Room

12:30 - 12:50pm

Conference Photo

Atrium

12:50 – 2:30pm

Lunch

Bistro – 2nd Floor

2:30 – 3:00pm

Theory review

Andrei Derevianko, University of Nevada
Zen and the art of atomic time-keeping (Tutorial on atomic clocks for particle theorists)

Bob Room

3:00 – 3:30pm

Hidetoshi Katori, RIKEN
Frequency comparison of cryogenic optical lattice clocks

Bob Room

3:30 - 4:00pm

Jeffrey Sherman,
National Institute of Standards and Technology
Time and frequency metrology at NIST

Bob Room

4:00 – 4:30pm

Coffee Break

Bistro – 1st Floor

4:30 – 5:00pm

Mikhail Kozlov, Petersburg Nuclear Physic Institute
Spectroscopic constrains on variation of fundamental constants in astrophysics.

Bob Room

5:00 – 6:00pm

Free Discussion (open mic)

Bob Room

 

Tuesday, June 17, 2014

Time

Event

Location

9:00 – 9:30am

Geoff Blewitt, University of Nevada
Atomic Clocks Monitored to 0.2 ns using Satellite Geodesy

Bob Room

 

9:30 - 10:30am

 

Exp Review

Guglielmo Tino, Istituto Nationale di Fisicia Nucleare
Precision gravity measurements with cold atom interferometry

 

Bob Room

 

10:30 – 11:00am

Coffee Break

Bistro – 1st Floor

11:00 - 11:30am

Jason Hogan, Stanford University
Fundamental physics with atom interferometry

Bob Room

11:30 - 12:00pm

Valerio Faraoni, Bishop's University
f(R) Gravity and Cosmology

Bob Room
12:00 - 12:25pm

Eli Levenson-Falk, Stanford University
Resonant Detection of Short-Range Gravitational Forces

Bob Room

12:25 – 1:30pm

Lunch

Bistro – 2nd Floor

1:30 – 2:00pm

Blayne Heckel, Washington University
Probing Gravity and Small Forces with Torsion Balances

Bob Room

2:00 – 2:30pm

Andrew Geraci, University of Nevada
New methods for detecting short-range forces and gravitational waves using resonant sensors 

Bob Room

2:30 – 3:00pm

Raman Sundrum, University of Maryland
Dark Energy and Testing Gravity

Bob Room

3:00 – 4:00pm

Coffee Break

Bistro – 1st Floor

4:00 - 4:30pm

Mikhail Lukin, Harvard University
A quantum network of clocks

Bob Room

4:30 - 5:00pm

Jason Stalnaker, Oberlin
Precision Spectroscopy of Atomic Lithium 

Bob Room

5:00 – 6:00pm

Free Discussion (open mic)

Bob Room

 

Wednesday, June 18, 2014

Time

Event

Location

9:00 – 10:00am

Cosmo Review

Marc Kamionkowski, Johns Hopkins University
Inflationary Gravitational Waves:
Recent Developments and Next Steps

Bob Room

10:00 - 11:00am

Theory Review

Surjeet Rajendran, Stanford University
Axions: Past, Present and Future

Bob Room

11:00 – 11:30am

Coffee Break

Bistro – 1st Floor

11:30 – 12:00pm

David Marsh, Perimeter Institute
Cosmological Constraints on Ultra-light Axions

Bob Room

12:00 – 12:30pm

Josef Pradler, Johns Hopkins University
Astrophysical and cosmological aspects of feebly-interacting light species

Bob Room

12:30 – 2:00pm

Lunch

Bistro – 2nd Floor

2:00 – 3:30pm

Stefano Liberati, SISSA
Perimeter Colloquium: 
Analogue Models of Gravity:  The ubiquitous space-time

Theater

3:30 – 4:00pm

Coffee Break

Bistro – 1st Floor

4:00 – 4:30pm

Yevgeny Stadnik, University of New South Wales
Axion-induced effects and topological defect dark matter detection schemes

Bob Room

4:30 – 5:00pm

Jeremy Mardon, Stanford University
Ultra-light hidden photons

Bob Room

5:00 – 5:30pm

Vladimir Dzuba, University of New South Wales
Search for new physics in atoms:
cosmic PNC and variation of alpha.

Bob Room

5:30 – 6:30pm

Free Discussion (open mic)

Bob Room

6:45pm Banquet Bistro - 2nd Floor
 

Thursday, June 19, 2014

Time

Event

Location

9:00 – 10:00am

Exp review

Nathan Leefer, University of California, Berkeley
Szymon Pustelny, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski
Optical magnetometry - From basics to Global Network of Optical Magnetometer for Exotic physics

Bob Room

10:00 – 10:30am

Lutz Trahms, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt
Nuclear spin precession of noble gases in ultra low magnetic fields

Bob Room

10:30 –11:00am

Michael Romalis, Princeton University
Atomic magnetometers for precision measurements

Bob Room

11:00 – 11:30am

 Coffee Break

Bistro – 1st Floor

11:30 – 12:00pm

Kfir Blum, Institute for Advanced Study
Comments on the Chiral Lagrangian in an Axion-Like Background

Bob Room

12:00 – 2:00pm

Lunch

Bistro – 2nd Floor

2:00 - 2:30pm

Robin Cote, University of Conneticut
Probing the electron-proton mass ratio variation with AMO systems

Bob Room

2:30 – 3:30pm

Summary of the Meeting

Derek Jackson Kimball, California State University

Bob Room

3:50 – 4:00pm

Coffee Break

Bistro – 1st Floor

4:00 – 6:00pm

Free Discussion (open mic)

Bob Room

6:00pm

Casual Dinner – Details TBA

Offsite

 

 

Geoff Blewitt, University of Nevada

Atomic Clocks Monitored to 0.2 ns using Satellite Geodesy

Satellite geodesy uses the timing of photons from satellites to determine the Earth’s time varying shape, gravity field, and orientation in space, with accuracies of <1 part per billion, or millimeters at the Earth’s surface, and centimeters at satellite altitude.  Implicit in mm-level GPS positioning is the modeling of widely separated atomic clocks with sub-ns precision.  The precise monitoring of the relative timing phases between widely separated atomic clocks forms the metrological basis of a recently proposed approach to detect topological dark matter of a type that affects fundamental constants.  Relative clock time can be updated as often as every second using the current global network of geodetic GPS stations that record data at that rate, though many more geodetic GPS stations record data every 30 seconds.  Thus GPS could be used as the world’s largest dark matter detector, potentially sensitive to dark matter structures sweeping through the entire system >100 seconds, corresponding to speeds <500 km s¬-1 relative to the solar system.  Here it is shown that relative timing phases can be determined to ~0.2 ns between the global network of atomic clocks at many geodetic GPS stations on the Earth’s surface separated as far as ~12,000 km, plus those aboard the 30 GPS satellites separated as far as ~50,000 km.  Available atomic clock types include caesium (Cs), rubidium (Rb), and (on the ground) hydrogen maser (Hm).  Achieving sub-ns relative timing precision requires (1) dual-frequency carrier phase data measured at the few mm level, (2) rigorous modeling of many aspects of the Earth system and GPS satellite dynamics, and (3) stochastic estimation of biases in the system.  For example, solar radiation pressure from momentum exchange with photons hitting the satellites perturbs orbits at the few-meter level.  Imperfect modeling, such as knowledge of the satellite attitude, requires us to estimate orbit acceleration biases as they slowly vary in time.  For mm-level positioning applications, clock phases are considered to be unknown biases to be estimated as a white noise process, that is, estimated independently at every data epoch without constraint.  By virtue of the common view of satellites simultaneously by multiple ground stations, relative clock time can be determined between all clocks in the entire satellite-ground system by estimating all biases in a global inversion.  Since the timing phase between Hm clocks can be accurately extrapolated forward in time, they set the standard by which upper limits can be set on the precision of timing at any specific instant.   As a feasibility study, a custom analysis of original raw GPS phase data was designed using the GIPSY OASIS II software (from NASA JPL), processing data from ~40 ground stations of various atomic clock type.   An analysis of data from GPS stations that are positioned at the few-millimeter level every day indicates that Hm clock time is determined at to ~0.2 ns.   Since the smoothness of Hm clocks is not assumed anywhere in the modeling, and that station clock type has no influence on positioning precision, one can infer that timing at the 0.2 ns level is also the case for less predictable atomic clocks such as Rb and Cs, thus providing a window into possibly different coupling of dark matter with different clock types.

Kfir Blum, Institute for Advanced Study

Comments on the Chiral Lagrangian in an Axion-Like Background

Axion dark matter that couples to the QCD instanton generates a series of non-renormalizable operators in the chiral Lagrangian. The coefficients of these operators are related through chiral perturbation theory. I discuss the implications of these relations for the spectrum and interactions  of the axion, allowing for arbitrary mixing between multiple axion states in the UV. I derive constraints  on the relation between the strength of an axion-induced oscillating nucleon EDM and the frequency of the oscillations.

Robin Cote, University of Conneticut

Probing the electron-proton mass ratio variation with AMO systems

Andrei Derevianko, University of Nevada

Zen and the art of atomic time-keeping (Tutorial on atomic clocks for particle theorists)

Vladimir Dzuba, University of New South Wales

Search for new physics in atoms: cosmic PNC and variation of alpha.

We consider pseudo-scalar and pseudo-vector interaction of atomic electrons with hypothetical dark matter particles (e.g., axions). These interactions lead to oscillating atomic parity non-conserving (PNC) amplitudes and/or oscillating electric dipole moments (EDM). In static limit for PNC, existing atomic PNC experiments can be used to constrain time component of the pseudo-vector field.

Possible variation of fundamental constants is suggested by theories unifying gravity with other interactions. Evidence of the space/time variation of the fine structure constant alpha is found in the quasar absorption spectra. Optical transitions in highly charged ions can be used as sensitive tools for studying time variation of alpha in laboratory.

Valerio Faraoni, Bishop's University

f(R) Gravity and Cosmology

A popular alternative to dark energy in explaining the current acceleration of the universe discovered with type Ia supernovae is modifying gravity at cosmological scales. But this is risky: even when everything is well for cosmology, other fundamental and experimental aspects of gravity must be checked in order for the theory to be viable. The successes of modified gravity and its challenges, which have  generated a large body of literature in the past ten years, will be  reviewed.

Andrew Geraci, University of Nevada

New methods for detecting short-range forces and gravitational waves using resonant sensors 

New methods for detecting short-range forces and gravitational waves using resonant sensors High-Q resonant sensors enable ultra-sensitive force and field detection. In this talk I will describe three applications of these sensors in searches for new physics. First I will discuss our experiment which uses laser-cooled optically trapped silica microspheres to search for violations of the gravitational inverse square law at micron distances [1].  I will explain how similar sensors could be used for gravitational wave detection at high frequencies [2].  Finally I will describe a new method for detecting short-range spin-dependent forces from axion-like particles based on nuclear magnetic resonance in hyperpolarized Helium-3.  The method can potentially improve previous experimental bounds by several orders of magnitude and can probe deep into the theoretically interesting regime for the QCD axion [3].

[1]  A.Geraci, S. Papp, and J. Kitching, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 101101 (2010), [2] A. Arvanitaki and A. Geraci, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 071105 (2013), [3] A. Arvanitaki and A. Geraci, arxiv: 1403.1290 (2014).

Blayne Heckel, Washington University

Probing Gravity and Small Forces with Torsion Balances

The EotWash group at the University of Washington has developed a set of torsion balance instruments to probe the properties of gravity and to search for new weak forces. Current efforts focus on improved tests of the principle of equivalence, the inverse square law at short distances, and spin-coupled interactions. These experiments and prospects for the future will be discussed.

Jason Hogan, Stanford University

Fundamental physics with atom interferometry

Precision atom interferometry is poised to become a powerful tool for discovery in fundamental physics.  Towards this end, I will describe recent, record-breaking atom interferometry experiments performed in a 10 meter drop tower that demonstrate long-lived quantum superposition states with macroscopic spatial separations.  The potential of this type of sensor is only beginning to be realized, and the ongoing march toward higher sensitivity will enable a diverse science impact, including new limits on the equivalence principle, probes of quantum mechanics, and detection of gravitational waves.  Gravitational wave astronomy is particularly compelling since it opens up a new window into the universe, collecting information about astrophysical systems and cosmology that is difficult or impossible to acquire by other methods.  Atom interferometric gravitational wave detection offers a number of advantages over traditional approaches, including simplified detector geometries, access to conventionally inaccessible frequency ranges, and substantially reduced antenna baselines.

Marc Kamionkowski, Johns Hopkins University

Inflationary Gravitational Waves: Recent Developments and Next Steps

The recently reported evidence for the cosmic microwave background signature of inflationary gravitational waves is very tantalizing.  I will discuss how the measurement is done, the evidence presented by BICEP2, the interpretation, and some of the criticisms of the arguments presented by BICEP2 that the signal is not dust-dominated.  I will then review next steps to be taken with future CMB experiments and with galaxy surveys.

Hidetoshi Katori, RIKEN

Frequency comparison of cryogenic optical lattice clocks

We report frequency comparison of two Sr optical lattice clocks operated at cryogenic temperature to dramatically reduce blackbody radiation shift. After 11 measurements performed over a month, the two cryo-clocks agree to within (-1.1±1.6)×〖10〗^(-18).

Current status of a frequency ratio measurement of Hg/Sr clocks and a remote comparison of cryo-clocks located at Riken and University of Tokyo will be mentioned.

Mikhail Kozlov, Petersburg Nuclear Physic Institute

Spectroscopic constrains on variation of fundamental constants in astrophysics.

I will discuss present limits on the variation of the fine structure constant and the electron to proton mass ratio from the astrophysical data on the spectra from the interstellar gas medium.

The emphasis will be made on the infrared and microwave spectra. Such spectra may be 2 - 3 orders of magnitude more sensitive to the variation of constants than optical spectra.

Nathan Leefer, University of California, Berkeley, Helmholtz Institute Mainz &
Szymon Pustelny, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski

Optical magnetometry - From basics to Global Network of Optical Magnetometer for Exotic physics

In our talk we seek to present a broad overview of the field of optical magnetometers, starting from basic principles to fundamental limitations to the variety of applications in which they have already found use. We will end with a report on the development of a new worldwide network of synchronized magnetometers that can be used to search for a variety of new physical phenomena (many of which are discussed at this conference!).

Eli Levenson-Falk, Stanford University

Resonant Detection of Short-Range Gravitational Forces

Some theories predict a short-range component to the gravitational force, typically modeled as a Yukawa modification of the gravitational potential.  This force is usually detected by measuring the motion of a mechanical oscillator driven by an external mass.  In this talk I will discuss such an apparatus optimized for use in the 10-100 micron distance range.  The setup consists of a cantilever-style silicon nitride oscillator suspended above a rotating drive mass.  Periodic density variations in the drive mass cause an oscillatory gravitational force on the cantilever, whose position is read out using optical interferometry.  In order to drive the cantilever precisely on resonance, it must have a broad resonant peak; however, lower quality factors reduce force sensitivity by reducing the amplitude of oscillation for a given drive force.  We solve this problem by implementing an effective damping on the oscillator by use of optical feedback.  I will discuss further applications of this feedback technique, as well as improvements to the apparatus and future experiments.

Mikhail Lukin, Harvard University

A quantum network of clocks

By combining precision metrology and quantum networks, we describe a quantum, cooperative protocol for the operation of a network consisting of geographically remote optical atomic clocks. Using non-local entangled states, we demonstrate an optimal utilization of the global network resources, and show that such a network can be operated near the fundamental limit set by quantum theory yielding an ultra-precise clock signal. Besides serving as a real-time clock for the international time scale, the proposed quantum network also represents a large-scale quantum sensor that can be used to probe the fundamen- tal laws of physics, including relativity and connections between space-time and quantum physics. Prospects for realization of such networks will be discussed. 

Jeremy Mardon, Stanford University

Ultra-light hidden photons

David Marsh, Perimeter Institute

Cosmological Constraints on Ultra-light Axions

Ultra-light axions (ULAs) with masses in the range 1e-33 eV< m < 1e-18 eV can constitute a novel component of the dark matter, which can be constrained by cosmological observations. ULA dark matter (DM) is produced non-thermally via vacuum realignment in the early universe and is cold. Pressure perturbations, however, manifest a scale in the clustering (also the de Broglie scale). For the range of masses considered this spans the Hubble scale down to sub-galactic scales. In the model-independent adiabatic mode of initial conditions, one can gain strong constraints on ULAs as DM from the CMB and large scale structure (LSS). I will present constraints from Planck and WiggleZ, constraining m~1e-33 eV to 1e-25 eV at the percent level. In the range m\gtrsim 1e-22 eV ULAs may also solve the "small-scale problems" of CDM, and suggest other constraints from LSS and high-z observations, constraining m\lesssim 1e-22 eV to be sub-dominant in DM. Future prospects from CMB lensing, and from Euclid galaxy weak lensing, will make sub-percent constraints out to m~1e-21 eV. Model-dependent couplings between axions and photons provide still other bounds from CMB spectral distortions. Finally, if the inflationary energy scale is high, corresponding to an observable tensor-to-scalar ratio, then CMB isocurvature perturbations provide the strongest constraints on m>1e-24 eV, ruling out ULA dark matter in the simplest inflationary scenarios over the entire range considered, as well as the "anthropic window" for the QCD axion.

Ekkehard Peik, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt

Atomic Clocks and Tests of Fundamental Physics

The precision of atomic clocks continues to improve at a rapid pace: While caesium clocks now reach relative systematic uncertainties of a few 10-16, several optical clocks based on different atomic systems are now reported with uncertainties in the 10-18 range.  This variety of precise clocks will allow for improved tests of fundamental physics, especially quantitative tests of relativity and searches for variations of constants.  Laser-cooled and trapped ions permit the study of strongly forbidden transitions with extremely small natural linewidths and long coherence times. The frequency of the electric octupole transition S1/2 - F7/2 at 467 nm in 171Yb+ with a natural linewidth in the nHz range is remarkably insensitive against external electric and magnetic fields. We evaluate the systematic uncertainty of a frequency standard that is based on this transition as 4*10-18 at present. An even better isolation from external perturbations can be expected for the nuclear transition in 229Th3+ at about 160 nm with an expected linewidth in the mHz range. In order to excite the so far only indirectly observed nuclear transition using electronic bridge processes, we investigate the dense electronic level structure of Th+. Both transitions, in Yb+ and 229Th, are predicted to be highly sensitive to changes in the fine structure constant. I will give an update on limits on variations of constants as obtained from atomic clock comparisons.

Josef Pradler, Johns Hopkins University

Astrophysical and cosmological aspects of feebly-interacting light species

More often than not, astrophysical probes are superior to direct laboratory tests when considering light, very weekly interacting particles and it takes clever strategies and/or ultra-pure experimental setups for direct tests to be competitive. In this talk, I will review the astrophysical side of the story with a particular focus on dark photons and axion-like particles. I will also present some recent results on the emission process of dark photons with mass below 10 keV from the interior of stars. Compared to previous analyses, limits on dark photons are significantly improved, to the extent that many dedicated experimental searches find themselves inside astrophysically excluded regions. However, constraints on the atomic ionization rate from a solar flux imposed by Dark Matter experiments offer a new test of such states, surpassing even the most stringent astrophysical  limits. The model also serves as a prototype scenario for energy injection in the early Universe and I will show how cosmology offers unique sensitivity when laboratory probes are out of reach. Time permitting, I may also briefly comment on very light axions and their cosmology.

Surjeet Rajendran, Stanford University

Axions: Past, Present and Future

I will review the theoretical motivations for axion and axion-like-particles. I will then discuss bounds on such particles and highlight ways to experimentally probe them.

Michael Romalis, Princeton University

Atomic magnetometers for precision measurements

Atomic magnetometers have a long history in tests of Standard Model since they provide sensitive constraints on new spin interactions. I will review recent progress in magnetometry using electron and nuclear spins, describe some of the limits set on new physics and discuss ideas for future experiments.

Jeffrey Sherman, National Institute of Standards and Technology

Time and frequency metrology at NIST

Official U.S. time is currently realized by an ensemble of commercial cesium-beam atomic clocks and hydrogen masers. Cesium-fountain devices presently serve as ultimate frequency references and help to define the SI second. The present quandary is: these microwave-based standards are rapidly becoming outmatched by new optical atomic frequency references---by a factor of 1,000 in stability, and perhaps a factor of 100 in accuracy. I will survey the ongoing optical atomic clock projects at NIST and highlight related work in optical time and frequency measurement and transfer.

Yevgeny Stadnik, University of New South Wales

Axion-induced effects and topological defect dark matter detection schemes

We discuss new observable effects of axionic dark matter in atoms, molecules and nuclei. We show that the interaction of an axion field, or in general a pseudoscalar field, with the axial-vector current generated by an electron through a derivative-type coupling can give rise to a time-dependent mixing of opposite-parity states in atomic and molecular systems. Likewise, the analogous interaction of an axion field with the axial-vector current generated by a nucleon can give rise to time-dependent mixing of opposite-parity states in nuclear systems. This mixing can induce oscillating electric dipole moments, oscillating parity nonconservation effects and oscillating anapole moments in such systems. By adjusting the energy separation between the opposite-parity states of interest to match the axion mass energy, axion-induced experimental observables can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude. Oscillating atomic electric dipole moments can also be generated by axions through hadronic mechanisms, namely the P,T-violating nucleon-nucleon interaction and through the axion-induced electric dipole moments of valence nucleons, which comprise the nuclei. The axion field is modified by Earth’s gravitational field. The interaction of the spin of either an electron or nucleon with this modified axion field leads to axion-induced observable effects. These effects, which are of the form g • σ, differ from the axion-wind effect, which has the form pa • σ.

We also propose schemes for the detection of topological defect dark matter using pulsars and other luminous extraterrestrial systems via non-gravitational signatures. The dark matter field, which makes up a defect, may interact with standard model particles, including quarks and the photon, resulting in the alteration of their masses. When a topological defect passes through a pulsar, its mass, radius and internal structure may be altered, resulting in a pulsar `quake'. A topological defect may also function as a cosmic dielectric material with a frequency-dependent index of refraction, which would give rise to the time delay of a periodic extraterrestrial light or radio signal, and the dispersion of a light or radio source in a similar manner to an optical lens. The biggest advantage of such astrophysical observations over recently proposed terrestrial detection methods is the much higher probability of a defect been found in the vast volumes of outer space compared with one passing through Earth itself.

References:
(1) Phys. Rev. D 89, 043522 (2014).

(2) arXiv:1404.2723.
(3) arXiv:1405.5337.

Jason Stalnaker, Oberlin

Precision Spectroscopy of Atomic Lithium 

The simplicity of the atomic structure of lithium has long made it a system of theoretical interest.  With the development of stabilized optical frequency combs, it is possible to achieve experimental accuracies that provide significant tests of atomic theory calculations as well as a window into nuclear structure.  I will discuss an ongoing experimental effort at Oberlin College to measure the energy levels of lithium using a stabilized optical frequency comb.

Raman Sundrum, University of Maryland

Dark Energy and Testing Gravity

I will review why the mild acceleration of the Universe poses a major puzzle, the Cosmological Constant Problem, for the connection  between gravity and matter, suggesting a possible breakdown in the standard general relativistic and field theoretic description. Thus far theorists have failed to provide any very concrete and testable resolution.  I will however discuss some simple theoretical ideas that suggest directions for experiments to lead the way.

Guglielmo Tino, Istituto Nationale di Fisicia Nucleare

Precision gravity measurements with cold atom interferometry

I will discuss experiments we are conducting for precision tests of gravitational physics using cold atom interferometry.  In particular, I will report on the measurement of the gravitational constant G with a Rb Raman interferometer, and on experiments based on Bloch oscillations of Sr atoms confined in an optical lattice for gravity measurements at small spatial scales and for testing Einstein equivalence principle.

Lutz Trahms, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt

Nuclear spin precession of noble gases in ultra low magnetic fields

In the low energy re¬gime, precision measurements of spin precession have gained increased attention as an alternative pathway to physics beyond the standard model. These measurements aim at the detection of minute frequency changes superimposed on low Larmor frequencies at extremely weak magnetic fields. Such measurements require an effective shielding against the magnetic field of the Earth and other perturbations.  For measuring the precession frequency with high precision, a long lifetime of the precessing nuclear magnetization is required, thus the homogeneity of the applied field is a crucial parameter. In addition, criteria are needed that unambiguously distinguish magnetic artifacts from the non-magnetic exotic interactions that we search for. This can be accomplished by the concept of co-magnetometry, i.e., by simultaneous measuring the precession of two nuclear species such as 3He and 129Xe. Yet another kind of co-magnetometry is the use of SQUIDs for monitoring the spin precession. SQUIDs are magnetic field detectors of their own kind, which can measure the oscillating magnetic field generated by the precessing nuclear magnetic moment as well as the magnetic dc background field. In this presentation, I will report on the current state of the art in our lab in measurements of nuclear spin precession of noble gases.  

 

Tuesday Jun 17, 2014
Speaker(s): 

A popular alternative to dark energy in explaining the current acceleration of the universe discovered with type Ia supernovae is modifying gravity at cosmological scales. But this is risky: even when everything is well for cosmology, other fundamental and experimental aspects of gravity must be checked in order for the theory to be viable. The successes of modified gravity and its challenges, which have generated a large body of literature in the past ten years, will be reviewed.

 

Tuesday Jun 17, 2014
Speaker(s): 

Precision atom interferometry is poised to become a powerful tool for discovery in fundamental physics. Towards this end, I will describe recent, record-breaking atom interferometry experiments performed in a 10 meter drop tower that demonstrate long-lived quantum superposition states with macroscopic spatial separations.

 

Tuesday Jun 17, 2014
Speaker(s): 

I will discuss experiments we are conducting for precision tests of gravitational physics using cold atom interferometry. In particular, I will report on the measurement of the gravitational constant G with a Rb Raman interferometer, and on experiments based on Bloch oscillations of Sr atoms confined in an optical lattice for gravity measurements at small spatial scales and for testing Einstein equivalence principle.

 

Tuesday Jun 17, 2014
Speaker(s): 

Satellite geodesy uses the timing of photons from satellites to determine the Earth’s time varying shape, gravity field, and orientation in space, with accuracies of 100 seconds, corresponding to speeds

 

Monday Jun 16, 2014
Speaker(s): 

I will discuss present limits on the variation of the fine structure constant and the electron to proton mass ratio from the astrophysical data on the spectra from the interstellar gas medium. The emphasis will be made on the infrared and microwave spectra. Such spectra may be 2 - 3 orders of magnitude more sensitive to the variation of constants than optical spectra.

 

Monday Jun 16, 2014
Speaker(s): 

Official U.S. time is currently realized by an ensemble of commercial cesium-beam atomic clocks and hydrogen masers. Cesium-fountain devices presently serve as ultimate frequency references and help to define the SI second. The present quandary is: these microwave-based standards are rapidly becoming outmatched by new optical atomic frequency references---by a factor of 1,000 in stability, and perhaps a factor of 100 in accuracy. I will survey the ongoing optical atomic clock projects at NIST and highlight related work in optical time and frequency measurement and transfer.

 

Monday Jun 16, 2014
Speaker(s): 

We report frequency comparison of two Sr optical lattice clocks operated at cryogenic temperature to dramatically reduce blackbody radiation shift. After 11 measurements performed over a month, the two cryo-clocks agree to within (-1.1±1.6)×〖10〗^(-18).
Current status of a frequency ratio measurement of Hg/Sr clocks and a remote comparison of cryo-clocks located at Riken and University of Tokyo will be mentioned.

 

Monday Jun 16, 2014
Speaker(s): 

The precision of atomic clocks continues to improve at a rapid pace: While caesium clocks now reach relative systematic uncertainties of a few 10-16, several optical clocks based on different atomic systems are now reported with uncertainties in the 10-18 range. This variety of precise clocks will allow for improved tests of fundamental physics, especially quantitative tests of relativity and searches for variations of constants. Laser-cooled and trapped ions permit the study of strongly forbidden transitions with extremely small natural linewidths and long coherence times.

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Scientific Organizers:

Asimina Arvanitaki, Perimeter Institute
Dmitry Budker, University of California, Berkeley & Helmholtz Institute, Mainz
Andrei Derevianko, University of Nevada
Peter Graham, Stanford University
Derek Jackson Kimball, California State University
Maxim Pospelov, Perimeter Institute & University of Victoria